A strong understanding of how sound behaves in different conditions in the ocean helps scientists answer fundamental questions about the planet, the ocean, and marine life.
Underwater imaging continues to advance in technology, allowing research to be conducted in the pressure-filled, extreme environments of the ocean.
An oceanographic mooring consists of a long cable with an anchor at one end, a float at the other, and instruments attached to the line in between or to a float.
Ocean models are mathematical models of ocean properties and circulation, which helps us to better understand the ocean's influence on weather and climate.
Ocean observatories have suites of instruments and sensors with long-term power supplies and permanent communications links that feed data in real-time.
Oceanographers rely on sophisticated ships to get a firsthand look at the ocean environment and to carry their tools and instruments into it.
Oceanographic observing tools has grown to include human-occupied submersibles, remote-controlled vehicles, and autonomous robots.