Coastal Science


Coastal Ecosystems

The narrow region where land and ocean meet is among the most dynamic and complex collection of physical and biological…

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Groundwater

Groundwater is water that exists underground in the spaces between grains of sand or gravel or in the cracks and…

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Coastal Science

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Although the oceans cover most of Earth, the the tiny sliver of the coastal ocean greatly influences, and is most influenced by, human activity.

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Climate Change Likely Caused Migration, Demise of Ancient Indus Valley Civilization

Climate Change Likely Caused Migration, Demise of Ancient Indus Valley Civilization

More than 4,000 years ago, the Harappa culture thrived in the Indus River Valley of what is now modern Pakistan and northwestern India, where they built sophisticated cities, invented sewage systems that predated ancient Rome’™s, and engaged in long-distance trade with settlements in Mesopotamia. Yet by 1800 BCE, this advanced culture had abandoned their cities, moving instead to smaller villages in the Himalayan foothills. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) found evidence that climate change likely drove the Harappans to resettle far away from the floodplains of the Indus.

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