Turbulent Mixing and Biophysical Interactions : Image

An example of annual variations over the past decade at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) station. (a) nitrate concentrations, (b) phosphate concentrations, (c) primary production, (d) chlorophyll. Nutrients are mixed upwards into surface waters through eddy diffusion throughout the year; convective overturn deepens the mixed layer during fall/winter leading to further mixing. (Figure modified from Steinberg et al. (2001) )