Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Christopher M Reddy

»Using comprehensive chemical composition of oil to model evaporative weathering and predict ozone and potential secondary aerosol formation.
»Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities.
»Confirmation of equilibration of a heavy crude rim of a large Saudi Arabian oilfield using GCxGC and isotope analysis.
»Combined petroleum system modeling and GCxGC to improve understanding of the crude oil chemistry in the Llanos Basin, Colombia.
»Production of jet fuel range hydrocarbons as a co-product of algal biodiesel by butenolysis of long-chain alkenones
»Unprecedented Insights into the Chemical Complexity of Coal Tar from Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Direct Infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry
»Impact of protists on a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from deep-sea Gulf of Mexico sediments: A microcosm study
»A fallout plume of submerged oil from the Deepwater Horizon.
»First Day of an Oil Spill on the Open Sea: Early Mass Transfers of Hydrocarbons to Air and Water.
»Recalcitrance and degradation of petroleum biomarkers upon abiotic and biotic natural weathering.
»Targeted Petroleomics: Analytical Investigation of Macondo Well Oil Oxidation Products from Pensacola Beach
»Response of Different Types of Sulfur Compounds to Oxidative Desulfurization of Jet Fuel
»Synthesis and Analysis of an Alkenone-Free Biodiesel from Isochrysis sp.
»Unprecedented Ultrahigh Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry and Parts-Per-Billion Mass Accuracy Enable Direct Characterization of Nickel and Vanadyl Porphyrins in Petroleum from Natural Seeps
»Molecular Evidence of Heavy-Oil Weathering Following the M/V Cosco Busan Spill: Insights from Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry
»Resolving Biodegradation Patterns of Persistent Saturated Hydrocarbons in Weathered Oil Samples from the Deepwater Horizon Disaster
»Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting
»New thermodynamic modeling of reservoir crude oil
»Oxygenated weathering products of Deepwater Horizon oil come from surprising precursors.
»Oil spill source identification by principal component analysis of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.
»Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) in Coastal Environments Is Derived from Fossil Sources
»Recurrent Oil Sheens at the Deepwater Horizon Disaster Site Fingerprinted with Synthetic Hydrocarbon Drilling Fluids
»Expansion of the analytical window for oil spill characterization by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry: Beyond gas chromatography
»Microbial community structure and carbon cycling in soil overlying a coal-bed methane seep
»Oil Weathering after the Deepwater Horizon Disaster Led to the Formation of Oxygenated Residues
»A non-targeted GCxGC/TOF-MS method and software for inventorying persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants in marine environments.
»Comparison of GC-MS, GC-MRM-MS, and GC x GC to characterise higher plant biomarkers in Tertiary oils and rock extracts
»Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on a deep-water coral community in the Gulf of Mexico
»Beyond Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: Expanding the Renewable Carbon Profile with Alkenones from Isochrysis sp.
»Thermogravimetry-Mass Spectrometry for Carbon Nanotube Detection in Complex Mixtures
»Estimating Phospholipid Membrane-Water Partition Coefficients Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography
»The composition, origin and fate of complex mixtures in the maltene fractions of hydrothermal petroleum assessed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
»Age of nitrogen deficient microalgal cells is a key factor for maximizing lipid content.
»δ15N Enrichment Suggests Possible Source for Halogenated 1′-Methyl-1,2′-bipyrroles (MBPs)
»Modern and fossil contributions to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 from North Birmingham, Alabama in the southeastern U.S.
»Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application
»Chemical composition measurements quantify Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbon emissions and distribution in the marine environment.
»Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate
»Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico
»Composition and fate of gas and oil released to the water column during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
»Separation of 18alpha(H)-, 18beta(H)-oleanane and lupane by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
»Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches
»Biodegradation preference for isomers of alkylated naphthalenes and benzothiophenes in marine sediment contaminated with crude oil
»Compound-specific bromine isotope compositions of one natural and six industrially synthesised organobromine substances
»Analysis of petroleum compositional similarity using multiway principal components analysis (MPCA) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic data
»Contemporary 14C radiocarbon levels of oxygenated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (O-PBDEs) isolated in sponge-cyanobacteria associations
»Analysis and Identification of Biomarkers and Origin of Color in a Bright Blue Crude Oil
»Multiple Alkynes React with Ethylene To Enhance Carbon Nanotube Synthesis, Suggesting a Polymerization-like Formation Mechanism
»Tracking Hydrocarbon Plume Transport and Biodegradation at Deepwater Horizon
»Combining biomarker and bulk compositional gradient analysis to assess reservoir connectivity
»Developing tools for risk assessment in protected species: Relative potencies inferred from competitive binding of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptors from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and mouse.
»The M/V Cosco Busan spill: Source identification and short-term fate.
»The Size, mass, and composition of plastic debris in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.
»Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
»Precursor gas chemistry determines the crystallinity of carbon nanotubes synthesized at low temperature.
»Stable organobromine in marine sediments: New evidence of biogeochemical Br cycling.
»Marine natural products, the halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs), biomagnify in the Northwestern Atlantic.
»Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine contaminants in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.
»Chemical compound class oil fingerprinting techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).
»Asphalt volcanoes as a potential source of methane to late Pleistocene coastal waters.
»Molecular and isotopic analysis of motor oil from a biodiesel-driven vehicle
»Early evaluation of potential environmental impacts of carbon nanotube synthesis by chemical vapor deposition.
»Method for rapid localization of seafloor petroleum contamination using concurrent mass spectrometry and acoustic positioning.
»Inferring black carbon concentrations in coastal seawater by observing pyrene fluorescence losses.
»Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and Atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western North Atlantic.
»Weathering and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleum seeps near Coal Oil Point, CA.
»Capabilities of direct sample introduction - comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze organic chemicals of interest in fish oils.
»Black carbon in the ocean: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine.
»Simultaneous quantification of multiple classes of organohalogen compounds in fish oils with direct sample introduction-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
»Nanoaggregates of asphaltenes in a reservoir crude oil.
»Distribution patterns suggest biomagnification of halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2' -bipyrroles (MBPs).
»Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seep using GCxGC; Broad metabolic specificity accompanies subsurface petroleum biodegradation.
»Response of salt marsh grass to residual petroleum spilled 38 years ago in Wild Harbor, MA.
»Radiocarbon as an inverse tracer of fossil fuel-derived contaminants in sediments.
»Using GCxGC-FID to identify and quantify olefin-based drilling fluids in crude oils.
»Vapour pressures, aqueous solubilities, Henry's Law constants, and octanol/water partition coefficients of a series of Mixed Halogenated Dimethyl Bipyrroles.
»d13C and D14C values of terrestrial subsurface bacterial phospholipids reveal diverse carbon cycling pathways.
»Method for rapid localization of seafloor petroleum contamination using concurrent mass spectrometry and acoustic positioning.
»Resolving the composition and formation of unresolved complex mixtures extracted from late Archean metasediments by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).
»Long-term consequences of residual petroleum on salt marsh grass.
»Organic Pollutants: Presence and Effects in Humans and Marine Animals.
»Effect of field exposure to 38-year old residual petroleum hydrocarbons on growth, condition index, and filtration rate of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa.
»Industrially synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes: Compositional data for users, environmental risk assessments, and source apportionment.
»Photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil films.
»Determination of biodiesel blending percentages using natural abundance radiocarbon analysis: Testing the accuracy of retail biodiesel blends.
»Expanding the range of dehalogenated 1’-methyl-1,2’-bipyrroles (MBPs) using GC/ECNI-MS and GC×GC/TOF-MS.
»Visible-near-infrared spectroscopy by downhole fluid analysis coupled with two dimensional gas chromatography to address oil reservoir complexity. 
»Relationships between carbon isotopic composition and mode of association of natural organic matter in marine sediments.
»Compound specific 81Br/79Br analysis by capillary gas chromatography multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-MC-ICPMS).
»Molecular evidence of late Archean Archaea and the presence of a deep biosphere.
»Disentangling oil weathering using GC×GC. Part 2. Mass transfer calculations.
»Disentangling oil weathering using GC×GC. Part 1. Chromatogram analysis.
»Carbon and chlorine isotope effects during abiotic reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated ethanes.
»Biodegradation and environmental behavior of biodiesel mixtures in the sea: An initial study.
»Long-term biological effects of petroleum: Response of fiddler crabs to oil in salt marsh sediments.
»Identification and quantification of alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
»Evaluation of gas chromatographic isotope fractionation and process contamination by carbon in compound- specific radiocarbon analysis.
»The 1974 spill of the Bouchard 65 oil barge: Petroleum hydrocarbons persist in Winsor Cove salt marsh sediments.
»Halogenated organic compounds in archived whale oil: A pre-industrial record.
»Late Quaternary evidence for climatically driven hydrocarbon emissions.
»Characterizing biodegradation and microbial metabolic activity in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis.
»Oil spill source identification by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).
»14C in Methane and DIC in the deep terrestrial subsurface: Implications for the timing of microbial methanogenesis.
»Natural  14C  in  Saccoglossus  Bromophenolosus  compared  to  its surrounding  sediments.
»Expanding the range of brominated Q1 analogues. 
»Temporal trends in anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated compounds in California sea lions, 1993 to 2003.
»Humic substances and crude oil induce cytochrome P450 1A expression in the Amazonian fish species Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui).
»Tracking the weathering of an oil spill with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
»Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals.
»Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003.
»Radiocarbon dating of alkenones from marine sediments: I. Isolation protocol.
»Spectral characterization of two bioaccumulated methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
»Estimating partitioning properties for a complete set of diesel fuel hydrocarbons using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography retention indices.
»Abundance, composition, and vertical transport of PAHs in marsh sediments.
»The West Falmouth oil spill: 100 kg of oil persists in marsh sediments.
»Combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment – A review.
»High-resolution historical records from Pettaquamscutt River basin sediments. 1. Chronology and record of 137Cs released by the Chernobyl accident.
»High-resolution historical records from Pettaquamscutt River basin sediments. 2. Pb isotopes reveal potential new stratigraphic marker.
»Contribution of biomass burning to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in European background aerosols.
»Determination of microbial carbon sources in petroleum contaminated sediments using molecular 14C analysis.
»Isotopic constraints on the fate of petroleum residues sequestered in salt marsh sediments.
»Molecular and isotopic identification of PAH sources in a highly industrialized urban estuary.
»Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products.
»Vapour pressures, aqueous solubilities, Henry’s Law constants, and octanol/water partition coefficients of a series of mixed halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles.
»Oil in our coastal backyard.
»Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.
»Radiocarbon evidence for a naturally-produced, bioaccumulating halogenated organic compound.
»Invariant chlorine isotopic signatures during microbial PCB reductive dechlorination.
»Innovative methods for determining alkenone unsaturation ratios.
»Using radiocarbon to apportion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household soot.
»A comparative analysis of the alkanes of Yaka, Prilep, Otlja tobaccos.
»Naturally-produced halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induce cytochrome P4501A and porphyrin accumulation in chicken embryo hepatocytes.
»Resolving the unresolved complex mixture in petroleum-contaminated sediments.
»n-Alkanes and fatty acids of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum maculatum and Hypericum olympicum.
»A high-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.
»A chlorine isotope effect for enzyme-catalyzed chlorination.
»The West Falmouth oil spill after thirty years: The persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in marsh sediments.
»Composition, age, provenance of organic matter in N.W. African dust over the Atlantic Ocean.
»A critical evaluation of interlaboratory data on total, elemental, and isotopic carbon in the carbonaceous particle reference material, NIST SRM 1649a.
»GC×GC: A new analytical tool for environmental forensics.
»Stable chlorine intramolecular kinetic isotope effects from the abiotic dehydrochlorination of DDT.
»Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds.
»Radiocarbon as a tool to apportion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in environmental samples.
»Stable chlorine and carbon isotopic compositions of selected semi-volatile organochlorine compounds.
»Evaluation of a protocol for the quantification of black carbon in sediments, soils, and aquatic sediments.
»The absence and application of stable carbon isotopic fractionation during the reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls.
»Identification of a novel alkenone in Black Sea sediments.
»Free and bound benzotriazoles in marine and freshwater sediments.
»The North Cape oil spill: Hydrocarbons in Rhode Island coastal waters and Point Judith Pond.
»Even carbon number predominance of plant wax n-alkanes: a correction.
»Stable chlorine isotopic compositions of Aroclors and Aroclor-contaminated sediments.
»The effects of micelles on electron-transfer and proton-transfer fluorescence quenching reactions.
»GC-MS analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the North Cape oil spill.
»Environmental chemistry of benzothiazoles derived from rubber.

Ventura, G.T., Raghuraman, B., Mullins, O.C., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Chemical compound class oil fingerprinting techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC)., Organic Geochemistry, doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2010.02.014

Determination of connectivity is of primary importance in petroleum reservoir characterization. Lack of connectivity can occur when the communication between two oil-producing zones is restricted. This subsurface condition is referred to as reservoir compartmentalization. Recognition of compartmentalization is often achieved by establishing whether two or more oils have the same molecular composition and hence are consistent with an equilibrium condition within a reservoir. Gas chromatography (GC) is one standard technique used to measure oil similarity. However, it is severely limited in the number of compounds that can be resolved in fluids as complex as oil. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) greatly expands the resolution of compounds in such complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC was used to compare the molecular compositions of two pairs of oil samples collected directly at depth within a reservoir drill hole. The first pair was sequentially sampled at the same depth and should represent the same oil. The second pair was collected from two different wells that were intersected by a permeable sedimentary horizon. The four samples were compared to each other and to a control sample using a novel comparative technique involving the separation of oil compositions into compound classes that are compared across a series of retention index ranges. These techniques were used to determine the compositional similarity of two or more oils, providing a more complete compositional comparison than possible with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC–flame ionization detection (GC–FID).

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