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Images: Navigating under ice

WHOI engineers Greg Packard (right) and Jeff Lord deploy a REMUS underwater vehicle off Barrow, Alaska, where the formation of sea ice ?transforms? waters from the Pacific and makes them saltier and denser. Photo by Al Plueddemann, WHOI.

WHOI engineer Greg Packard explains the internal electronics of the Remote Environmental Monitoring Units (REMUS) vehicle to WHOI scientist Andrey Shcerbina in the WHOI Ocean Systems Laboratory. (Photo by Al Plueddemann, WHOI)

To test a new REMUS navigation system, WHOI scientists journeyed to Barrow, Alaska, 340 miles north of the Arctic Circle. Barrow has a population of about 4,500, mostly Inupiat. These are the Native Village of Barrow (NVB) offices. (Photo by Al Plueddemann, WHOI)

REMUS surfaces after a test run measuring water temperatures and salinity off Barrow, Alaska. (Photo by Al Plueddemann, WHOI)

The WHOI research team used a local boat called Nigiqpaq for their at-sea operations. The village of Barrow has no harbors or docks, so Nigiqpaq was recovered directly on the beach, using a bulldozer to pull the boat onto a wooden platform. (Photo by Al Plueddemann, WHOI)

WHOI physical oceanographer Al Plueddemann adjusts a current meter in his lab in Woods Hole, Mass. (Photo by Tom Kleindinst, WHOI)