Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Joan M Bernhard

»Potential symbionts in bathyal foraminifera
»Sub-millimeter life positions of bacteria, protists, and metazoans in laminated sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin.
»Monterey Bay cold-seep biota: Assemblages, abundance, and ultrastructure of living foraminifera
»The Santa Barbara Basin is a symbiosis oasis

Bernhard, J. M., Potential symbionts in bathyal foraminifera, Science, 299: 861, 2003

Why do certain foraminiferan protists living below the photic zone sequester intact chloroplasts? This ?kleptoplast conundrum? has been described for Nonionella stella from a bathyal site (Santa Barbara Basin) but recent epifluorescence microscopic surveys of Beggiatoa-laden sediments cored from the oxygen-depleted, sulfide-enriched bathyal Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) revealed the presence of photosynthetic pigments in yet another benthic foraminifer, Virgulinella fragilis.

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