|Coolen,M.J.L., Cypionka, H., Sass, A.M., Sass, H., and Overmann, J., Ongoing modification of Mediterranean Pleistocene sapropels mediated by prokaryotes., Science, 296: 2407-2410, (2002)|
Late Pleistocene organic-rich sediments (sapropels) from the eastern Mediterranean Sea harbor unknown, metabolically active chemoorganotrophic prokaryotes. As compared to the carbon-lean intermediate layers, sapropels exhibit elevated cell numbers, increased activities of hydrolytic exoenzymes, and increased anaerobic glucose degradation rates, suggesting that microbial carbon substrates originate from sapropel layers up to 217,000 years old. 16S ribosomal RNAgene analyses revealed that as-yet-uncultured green nonsulfur bacteria constitute up to 70% of the total microbial biomass. Crenarchaeota constitute a smaller fraction (on average, 16%). Aslow but significant turnover of glucose could be detected. Apparently, sapropels are still altered by the metabolic activity of green nonsulfur bacteria and crenarchaeota. Full article is available here.