were applied in air on the benchtop to dry, damp, or wet shells
as noted in the sample preparation procedures documented in
the links at right.
tested on shells were sometimes made on empty and clean scallop
shells and sometimes on live animals with minimal algal fouling
on the shell surface. The details are noted in the sample
used for strength of materials tests at Bristol Community
College were prepared on dry metal fixtures of standard geometry
for the testing machines.