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Bates, N.R., 2007. Interannual variability of the oceanic CO2 sink in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean over the last two decades. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: doi:10.1029/2006JC003759.

Cianca, A., Helmke, P., Mourino, B., Rueda, M.J., Llinas, O. and Neuer, S. 2007.  Decadal analysis of hydrography and in situ nutrient budgets in the western and eastern North Atlantic subtropical gyreJournal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 112: 10.1029/2006JC003788.

Lomas, M.W., Steinberg, D.K., Dickey, T., Carlson, C.A., Nelson, N.B., Condon, R.H. and Bates, N.R. 2010. Increased ocean carbon export is countered by increased mesopelagic attenuation in the Sargasso SeaBiogeosciences 7: 57-70.

Phillips, H.E. and Joyce, T.M. 2007.  Bermuda’s tale of two time-series: Hydrostation S and BATS. Journal of Physical Oceanography 37, 554-571.

Steinberg, D.K., C.A. Carlson, N.R. Bates, R.J. Johnson, A.F. Michaels, and A.H. Knap. 2001. Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS): a decade-scale look at ocean biology and biogeochemistry. Deep-Sea Research II 48: 1405-1447.


Alvera-Azcarate, A. A. Barth and R. H. Weisberg. A nested model of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela): description of the basin's interior hydrography and interactions with the open ocean. Ocean Dynamics DOI 10.1007/s10236-008-0169-y.

Astor, Y. M. , M.I. Scranton, F. Müller-Karger, R. Bohrer, and J.García. 2005. fCO2 variability in a tropical coastal upwelling time series station. Mar. Chem. 97 (3-4): 245-261. 

Müller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, Y. Astor, H. Zhang, and C. Hu. 2004. Processes of Coastal Upwelling and Carbon Flux in the Cariaco Basin. Deep-Sea Res. II 51: 927-943. [doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2003.10.010].

Muller-Karger, Frank. E., R. Varela, R. C. Thunell, M. I. Scranton, G. T. Taylor, Y. Astor, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, L. Lorenzoni, E. Tappa, M. A. Goñi, D. Rueda, and C. Hu. 2010. The CARIACO Oceanographic Time Series. In: Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis. JGOFS Continental Margins Task Team (CMTT). Editors: Kon-Kee Liu, Larry Atkinson, Renato Quinones, Liana Talaue-McManus. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg.

Scranton, M.I., M. McIntyre, G.T. Taylor, F. Muller-Karger, K. Fanning, and Y.Astor.Temporal Variability in the Nutrient Chemistry of the Cariaco Basin. In: Neretin LN (ed.), Past and Present Water Column Anoxia. NATO Science Series, Springer, Netherlands, p. 139-160.

Thunell, R., C. Benitez-Nelson, R. Varela, Y. Astor and F. Müller-Karger. 2007. Particulate Organic Carbon Fluxes Along Upwelling-Dominated Continental Margins: Rates and Mechanisms. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB1022, doi:10.1029/2006GB002793.


Church, M.J., C. Mahaffey, R.M. Letelier, R. Lukas, J.P. Zehr, and D.M. Karl.  2009.  Physical forcing of nitrogen fixation and diazotroph community structure in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23: doi:10.1029/2008GB003418.

Corno, G., D.M. Karl, M.J. Church, R.M. Letelier, R. Lukas, and M.R. Abbott.   2007.  The impact of climate forcing on ecosystem processes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.  Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 112, C04021, doi:10.1029/2006JC003730.

Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler, M.J. Church, and D.M. Karl.  2009.  Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA  106:12235-12240.

Karl, D. 1999. A sea of change: biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Ecosystems  2: 181-214.

Karl, D.M. and R. Lukas. 1996.  The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program: Background, rationale and field implementation.  Deep-Sea Research II 43: 129-156.


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