When sea ice forms, it releases salt into surface
waters. These waters become denser and sink to form the Arctic
haloclinea layer of cold water that acts as barrier between sea ice
and deeper warmer water that could melt the ice. WHOI researchers and their colleagues from around the world have been deploying ships and instruments to measure how the waters beneath the Arctic ice are changing.
(Illustration by Jayne Doucette, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)