The goal of this work is to quantify how ocean acidification conditions impact squid (Loligo pealeii) embryo and paralarval development, behavior, and survival, as well as address the mechanisms that potentially induce these changes. Our initial data indicate that high CO2 levels (2200 ppm) and low pH (7.4) induce changes in squid paralarval length, development time, rate of hatching, statolith length, and statolith structure. Our current tests encompass current and predicted future CO2 levels (390-2200 ppm). We will hopefully produce effectual dose-response curves which are valuable for dynamic organisms which can occur in a range of environmental conditions. This upcoming work includes investigations of energy expenditures (via yolk sack size and swim velocity) and statolith mass and densities to address the potential mechanisms for changes in development, behavior and sensory physiology. Maintaining animals beyond hatching will allow estimates of survival potential. Final measurements will quantify the selectiveness of adults to lay eggs in the CO2 conditions in which effects were shown.
Follow up papers have included a review of priorities for OA research:
Pfister, CA, Esbaugh, A, Frieder, C, Baumann, H, Bockmon, E, White, M, Carter, B, Benway, H, Blanchette, C, Carrington, E, McClintock, J, McCorkle, D, McGillis, J, Mooney, TA and Ziveri, P. 2014. Detecting the Unexpected: A Research Framework for Ocean Acidification. Environmental Science and Technology, Special Issue on “Ocean Acidification: its Causes, Consequences, and Cures” 48 (17): 9982–9994. doi: 10.1021/es501936p
and applications for our new squid-jellyfish-environment biosensor (the ITAG):
Mooney, TA, Katija, K, Shorter, KA, Hurst, T, Fontes, J, and Afonso, P. ITAG: An eco-sensor for fine-scale behavioral measurements of soft-bodied marine invertebrates. 2015. In press. Animal Biotelemetry.
Links to these pdfs can be found on our publication page.