Amanda Spivak focusses on how human disturbances affect carbon cycling in nearshore environments, including wetland and seagrass habitats. Eutrophication, landscape development, fishing and other disturbances interactively determine the transformations and fate of “blue” carbon. Quantifying the effects of single and multiple disturbances on ecosystem functioning will help refine coastal carbon dynamics and budgets. Additional research focuses include: understanding whether restored and natural wetland habitats are biogeochemically similar and the amount of time required for functional equivalency; and evaluating biogeochemical controls on food chain efficiency. To accomplish this work, she uses a variety of biogeochemical tools, including stoichiometric ratios, stable isotopes, and lipid biomarkers, and field and mesocosm experiments (http://www.whoi.edu/sites/experimentalmesocosm).