From Caroline Ummenhofer's work, a map shows Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies (places where the water is cooler or warmer than expected). The inset shows precipitation amounts in Indian Ocean rim countries, inferred from simulations produced by a computer model of atmospheric general circulation for the March-May (MAM), June-Aug (JJA) and Sep-Nov (SON) seasons. The Sea Surface Temeperature (SST) anomalies (in degrees Celsius) are shown as the average over the March-Nov months. The model documented the response of the atmosphere to SST anomalies in the four labeled regions indicated by the dashed boxes. The anomalous rainfall associated with these regions of SST anomalies is shown by circles around the Indian Ocean rim countries. Filled (empty) circles denote an increase (decrease) in precipitation, as a percentage change. The size of each circle reflects the magnitude of change and the color of the circle indicating the season.