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»The Morphology of Steve

S. R. Jayne, N. G. Hogg, S. N. Waterman, L. Rainville, K. A. Donohue, D. R. Watts, K. L. Tracey, J. L. McClean, M. E. Maltrud, B. Qiu, S. Chen, and P. Hacker, The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres, Deep-Sea Research I, 2009

This paper reports on the strength and structure of recirculation gyres flanking the Kuroshio Extension.  In the time-average, recirculation gyres are found flanking the Kuroshio Extension to the north and south of the jet.  The observations were taken as part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) which had a 2 year field program from June 2004 -- June 2006.  All of the combined observations from the KESS program; current meters, current and pressure recording inverted echo sounders, sub-surface floats, in addition to a high-resolution numerical model, support the presence of recirculation gyres to the north and south of the Kuroshio Extension jet. At the location of the KESS array, the Kuroshio Extension jet and its recirculation gyre transport approximately 121 Sv in the stream-coordinate average of the current meters.  This represents an almost three-fold increase in the transport compared to the Kuroshio's transport at Cape Ashizuri before it separates from the coast and flows eastward into the open ocean.  This enhancement in the current's transport comes from the existence of recirculation gyres to the north and south of the jet.  Estimates from an array of inverted echo sounders and a high-resolution ocean general circulation model are of similar magnitude.

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