|Horner, T.J., R.B.Y. Lee, G.M. Henderson, and R.E.M. Rickaby, Nonspecific uptake and homeostasis drive the oceanic cadmium cycle, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2013|
The global marine distributions of Cd and phosphate are closely correlated, which has led to Cd being considered as a marine micronutrient, despite its toxicity to life. The explanation for this nutrient-like behavior is unknown because there is only one identified biochemical function for Cd, an unusual Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase. Recent developments in Cd isotope mass spectrometry have revealed that Cd uptake by phytoplankton causes isotopic fractionation in the open ocean and in culture. Here we investigate the physiochemical pathways that fractionate Cd isotopes by performing subcellular Cd isotope analysis on genetically modified microorganisms. We find that expression of the Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase makes no difference to the Cd isotope composition of whole cells. Instead, a large proportion of the Cd is partitioned into cell membranes with a similar direction and magnitude of Cd isotopic fractionation to that seen in surface seawater. This observation is well explained if Cd is mistakenly imported with other divalent metals and subsequently managed by binding within the cell to avoid toxicity. This process may apply to other divalent metals, whereby nonspecific uptake and subsequent homeostasis may contribute to elemental and isotopic distributions in seawater, even for elements commonly considered as micronutrients.
- Comment by F.M.M. Morel (2013) The oceanic cadmium cycle: Biological mistake or utilization? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.1304746110
- Reply by T.J. Horner et al. (2013) Cadmium as a micronutrient and macrotoxin in the oceans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.1305068110