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New peer-reviewed papers

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Oct 21, 2014 3:38 AM
Natural volcanic CO2 seeps reveal future trajectories for host–microbial associations in corals and sponges
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are rapidly rising causing an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the ocean and a reduction in pH known as ocean acidification (OA). Natural volcanic seeps in Papua New Guinea expel 99% pure CO2 and thereby offer a unique opportunity to explore the effects of OA in […]

Oct 21, 2014 3:21 AM
Aragonite undersaturation in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea: Effects of fresh water input
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity were precisely measured for surface and bottom waters in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, during the four seasons to assess seasonal variations of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag). Both the surface and bottom waters were undersaturated with respect to aragonite during summer but were supersaturated during the other seasons. The summertime undersaturation […]

Oct 21, 2014 3:07 AM
Best practices for autonomous measurement of seawater pH with the Honeywell Durafet
Performance of autonomous pH sensors is evaluated by comparing in situ data to independent bench-top measurements of pH and to co-located pH, O2, and View the MathML sourcepCO2 sensors. While the best practice is always to deploy a properly calibrated sensor, the lengthy time period required for sensor conditioning and calibration often results in sensor […]

Oct 21, 2014 2:53 AM
Responses of calcification of massive and encrusting corals to past, present, and near-future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations
In this study, we report the acidification impact mimicking the pre-industrial, the present, and near-future oceans on calcification of two coral species (Porites australiensis, Isopora palifera) by using precise pCO2 control system which can produce acidified seawater under stable pCO2 values with low variations. In the analyses, we performed Bayesian modeling approaches incorporating the variations […]

Oct 17, 2014 4:40 AM
A product of its environment: the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) exhibits physiological tolerance to elevated environmental CO2
Ocean acidification, resulting from increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, is predicted to affect the physiological performance of many marine species. Recent studies have shown substantial reductions in aerobic performance in some teleost fish species, but no change or even enhanced performance in others. Notably lacking, however, are studies on the effects of near-future CO2 conditions on […]

Oct 17, 2014 3:41 AM
Effects of ocean acidification combined with hypoxia, elevated temperature, or restricted food supply on early life stages of the forage fish Menidia beryllina, Menidia menidia, and Cyprinodon variegatus
Estuarine organisms are experiencing many stressors related to climate change at an accelerated pace when compared to the open ocean. The co-occurrence of acidification and hypoxia has been observed during warmer months when many fish species spawn in temperate estuaries. Concurrently, estuarine systems can experience extreme temperatures during summer and dynamic levels of plankton. This […]

Oct 16, 2014 6:04 AM
Coral reefs (in IPCC 2014 Report)
Coral reefs are shallow-water ecosystems that consist of reefs made of calcium carbonate which is mostly secreted by reef-building corals and encrusting macroalgae. They occupy less than 0.1% of the ocean floor yet play multiple important roles throughout the tropics, housing high levels of biological diversity as well as providing key ecosystem goods and services […]

Oct 16, 2014 4:29 AM
Ocean acidification (in IPCC 2014 Report)
Anthropogenic ocean acidification and global warming share the same primary cause, which is the increase of atmospheric CO2 (Figure OA-1A; WGI, Section 2.2.1). Eutrophication, loss of sea ice, upwelling and deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur all exacerbate ocean acidification locally. Chemistry and Projections The fundamental chemistry of ocean acidification is well understood (robust evidence, […]

Oct 16, 2014 4:21 AM
Ocean Systems (in IPCC 2014 Report)
Ocean ecosystems have responded and will continue to respond to climate changes of different rates, magnitudes, and durations (virtually certain). Human societies depend on marine ecosystem services, which are sensitive to climate change (high confidence), in particular the provisioning of food (fisheries and aquaculture) and other natural resources; nutrient recycling; regulation of global climate including […]

Oct 16, 2014 3:30 AM
The ocean (in IPCC 2014 Report)
The Ocean plays a central role in Earth’s climate and has absorbed 93% of the extra energy from the enhanced greenhouse effect and approximately 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Regional responses are addressed here by dividing the Ocean into seven sub-regions: High-Latitude Spring Bloom Systems (HLSBS), Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems (EBUE), […]