Please note: You are viewing the unstyled version of this website. Either your browser does not support CSS (cascading style sheets) or it has been disabled. Skip navigation.


   Print  PDF  Change text to small (default) Change text to medium Change text to large

Alin, S.R.,and T.C. Johnson.  2007.  Carbon cycling in large lakes of the world: A synthesis of production, burial, and lake-atmosphere exchange estimates.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, doi: 10.1029/2006GB002881.

Alin, S.R.,M.F.F.L. Rasera,C.I. Salimon, J.E. Richey, G.W. Holtgrieve, A.V. Krusche, and A. Snidvongs. 2011.  Physical controls on carbon dioxide transfer velocity and flux in river systems and implications for regional carbon budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research—Biogeosciences, doi:10.1029/2010JG001398.

Andersson A. J. and Mackenzie F. T. 2012. Revisiting four scientific debates in ocean acidification research. Biogeosciences 9, 1-13.

Andersson A. J., Kuffner I. B., Mackenzie F. T., Jokiel P. L., Rodgers K. S., and Tan A. 2009. Net Loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: mesocosm-scale experimental evidence. Biogeosciences 6, 1811-1823.

Andersson A. J., Mackenzie F. T., and Lerman A. 2005. Coastal ocean and carbonate systems in the high CO2 world of the Anthropocene. American Journal of Science 305, 875-918.

Andersson A. J., Mackenzie F. T., and Ver L. M. 2003. Solution of shallow-water carbonates: An insignificant buffer against rising atmospheric CO2. Geology 31, 513-516.

Anthony, K. R. N., Kline, D. I., Diaz-Pulido, G., Dove, S. and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2008. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 105: 17442–17446.

Archer D. 2005. Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C09S05.

Archer, D., Eby, M., Brovkin, V. et al. 2009. Atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel carbon dioxide. Ann. Rev. Earth and Planet. Sci., 37, 117–134.

Archer D., Kheshgi H., and Maier-Reimer E. 1998. Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 12, 259-276.

Barbiero, RP, ML Tuchman, and E Millard. 2006.  Post-dreissenid increases in transparency during summer stratification in the offshore waters of Lake Ontario: is a reduction in whiting events the cause?  Journal of Great Lakes Research, 32: 131-141.

Barker S., Higgins J. A., and Elderfield H. 2003. The future of the carbon cycle: review, calcification response, ballast and feedback on atmospheric CO2 . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 361, 1977-1999.

Bates, N.R., Best, M.H., Neely, K., Garley, R., Dickson, A.G., and Johnson, R.J. 2012. Indicators of anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences, 9, 2509-2522, doi: 10.10.5194/bg-9-2509-2012.

Beer S., Kock E. 1996. Photosynthesis of marine macroalgae and seagrasses in globally changing CO2 environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 141: 199–204.

Benton, M.J. and Twitchett, R.J.  2003.  How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event.  Ecology and Evolution 7:358-365.

Berner, R. A., Lasaga, A. C., Garrels, R. M. 1983. The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years. Am. J. Sci., 283, 641-683.

Betzer, P.R., R.H. Byrne, J.G. Acker, C.S. Lewis, R.R. Jolley, and R.A. Feely. 1984. The oceanic carbonate system: A reassessment of carbonate controls. Science, 226, doi: 10.1126/science.226.4678.1074, 1074–1077.

Broecker W. S. 2003. The oceanic CaCO3 cycle. In Treatise on Geochemistry (eds. K. K. Turekian and H. D. Holland).Vol. 6. The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry (ed. H. Elderfield). Elsevier, pp. 529-549.

Broecker, W. S. and Peng, T.-H. 1982. Tracers in the sea. Lamont-Doherty Geological observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY.

Buitenhuis, E.T., de Baar, H.J.W., and Veldhuis, M.J.W. 1999. Photosynthesis and calcification by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) as a function of inorganic carbon species:  Journal of Phycology, v. 35, p. 949–959.

Butman, D and PA Raymond. 2011.  Significant efflux of carbon dioxide from streams and rivers in the United States, Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1294.

Byrne, R.H., J.G. Acker, P.R. Betzer, R.A. Feely, and M.H. Cates.1984. Water column dissolution of aragonite in the Pacific Ocean. Nature, 312, doi: 10.1038/312321a0, 321–326.

Byrne, R.H., Mecking, S., Feely, R.A. and Liu, X.W. 2010. Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 37.

Caldeira, K. and Wickett, M.E. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425(6956): 365-365.

CBD (2010) COP 10 Decision X/29. Available at:

Cole, J. J., et al. 1994. Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lakes, Science, 265, 1568–1570.

Dickson, A.G., Sabine, C.L. and Christian, J.R. (Eds.) 2007. Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements. PICES Special Publication 3, 191 pp.

Donato, D. C. et al.. 2011. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geosci. 4, 293-297.

Dore, J.E., Lukas, R., Sadler, D.W., Church, M.J. and Karl, D.M. 2009. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(30): 12235-12240.

Driscoll, CT, GB Lawrence, AJ Bulger, TJ Butler, CS Cronan, C Eagar, KF Lambert, GE Likens, JL Stoddard, and KC Weathers. 2001.  Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies.  BioScience, 51(3): 180-198.

Duarte, C. M., et al. 2011. Assessing the capacity of seagrass meadows for carbon burial: Current limitations and future strategies. Ocean Coast. Manage. 51, 671-688.

Egleston, E.S., Sabine, C.L., Morel, F.M.M.  2010.  Revelle revisited: buffer factors that quantify the response of ocean chemistry to changes in DIC and alkalinity.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24:GB1002,doi:10.1029/2008GB003407.

Fairhall, A. W. 1973. Accumulation of fossil CO2 in the atmosphere and the sea. Nature 245, 20–23.

Fairhall, A. W. & Erickson, J. L. 1975. Future impact of fossil CO2 on the sea. Nature 254, 273–274.

Feely, R.A., R.H. Byrne, P.R. Betzer, J.F. Gendron, and J.G. Acker. 1984. Factors influencing the degree of saturation of the surface and intermediate waters of the North Pacific Ocean with respect to aragonite. J. Geophys. Res., 89(C6), doi: 10.1029/JC089iC06p10631, 10,631–10,640.

Feely, R.A., R.H. Byrne, J.G. Acker, P.R. Betzer, C.-T.A. Chen, J.F. Gendron, and M.F. Lamb. 1988. Winter-summer variations of calcite and aragonite saturation in the northeast Pacific. Mar. Chem., 25(3), doi: 10.1016/0304-4203(88)90052-7, 227–241.

Feely, R.A., and C.-T.A. Chen. 1982.  The effect of excess CO2 on the calculated calcite and aragonite saturation horizons in the northeast Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 9(11), doi: 10.1029/GL009i011p01294, 1294–1297.

Feely, R.A., Orr, J., Fabry, V.J., Kleypas, J.A., Sabine, C.L., and Langdon, C.  2009.  Present and future changes in seawater chemistry due to ocean acidification.  Geophysical Monograph Series 183:175-188.

Feely R. A., Sabine C. L., Lee K., Berelson W., Kleypas J., Fabry V. J., and Millero F. J. 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305, 362-366.

Feely, R.A. et al., 1988. Winter-summer variations of calcite and aragonite saturation in the northeast Pacific. Marine Chemistry, 25(3): 227-241.

Field, C.B., et al. 2011. IPCC Workshop on Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biology and Ecosystems: Workshop Report. Bankoku Shinryokan, Okinawa, Japan. 17-19 January 2011. 174 pp.

Fishtik, I., Nagypál, I., & Gutman, I. 1994. New approach to sensitivity analysis of multiple equilibria in solutions. Jounal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 90, 3245–3252.

Fishtik, I., Nagypál, I., & Gutman, I., 1995. Response reactions: a way to explain the unusual behavior of multiple equilibrium systems. Jounal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 91, 259–267.

Fourqurean, J.W. et al. 2012. Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock . Nature Geosci. 5, 505–509doi:10.1038/ngeo1477.

Gehlen M., Gruber N.,  Gangstø R., Bopp L., and Oschlies, A. 2011. Biogeochemical consequences of ocean acidification and feedbacks to the earth system. In Ocean acidification (eds. J.-P. Gattuso and L. Hansson). Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 230-248.

González-Dávila, M., Santana-Casiano, J.M., Rueda, M.J. and Llinas, O. 2010. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences, 7(10): 3067-3081.

Gray, J. 1988.  Aspects of freshwater paleoecology and biogeography.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 62(1-4), 678 p.

Green, M.A, Waldbusser, G.G., Hubazc, L., Cathcart, E., Hall, J. 2012. Carbonate mineral saturation state as the recruitment cue for settling bivalves in marine muds. Estuaries and Coasts  DOI 10.1007/s12237-012-9549-0

Gruber N. 2011. Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: Ocean biogeochemistry under global change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369: 1980-1996.

Harvey, L. D. D. 2008. Mitigating the atmospheric CO2 increase and ocean acidification by adding limestone powder to upwelling regions. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004373.

House, K. Z., House, C. H., Schrag, D. P & Aziz, M. J. 2007. Electrochemical acceleration of chemical weathering as an energetically feasible approach to mitigating anthropogenic climate change. Environ. Sci. Technol.41,8464–8470.

Huntington, S. 2002. A guide to calcium reactors. Reefkeeping (online magazine)

Hönisch, B., Ridgwell, A., Schmidt, D. N., et al., 2012. The geological record of ocean acidification. Science, 335, 1058–1063.

IOC/UNESCO, IMO, FAO, & UNDP. 2011. A Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability. Available at:

IPCC. 2003. Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme).

IPCC. 2007. Climate Change,  Synthesis Report 104.

Jiang Z.J., et al. 2010. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Photosynthesis, Growth, and Biochemical Composition of Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Int J Plant Biol 52: 904–913.

Joos, F., et al. 2011. Impact of climate change mitigation on ocean acidification projections. In Ocean Acidification (eds J.-P. Gattuso & L. Hansson). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kennedy, H., J. et al. 2010. Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: Isotopic constraints, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB4026, doi:10.1029/2010GB003848.

Kheshgi, H. S. 1995. Sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide by increasing ocean alkalinity Energy 20, 915-922.

Klaas, C., D. Archer. 2002. Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: Implications for the rain ratio. Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Kleypas, J. A., Buddemeier, R.W., Archer, D. Gattuso, J.-P., Langdon, C., & Opdyke, B. N. 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbn dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284, 118–120.

Kleypas, J.A. and Langdon, C.  2006.  Coral reefs and changing seawater carbonate chemistry.  Coastal and Estuarine Studies 61:73-110.

Kump, L. R., Bralower, T., and Ridgwell, A. 2009. Ocean acidification in deep time. Oceanography, 22(4), 94-107.

Langdon, C., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Chipman, D., Goddard, J., Marubini, F., Aceves, H. & Barnett, H. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14, 639–654.

Mackenzie, F. T., and Lerman, A. 2006. Carbon in the geobiosphere – Earth’s outer shell. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 402 p. 65–292.

Mcleod E, Anthony KRN, Andersson A, Beeden R, Kleypas J, Kroeker K, Manzello DP, Salm R, Schuttenberg H, Smith JE. 2012. Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification: Lessons from coral bleaching. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. In press

MacLeod N, Rawson PF, Forey PL, Banner FT, Boudagher-Fadel MK, Bown PR, Burnett JA, Chambers, P, Culver S, Evans SE, Jeffery C, Kaminski MA, Lord AR, Milner AC, Milner AR, Morris N, Owen E, Rosen BR, Smith AB, Taylor PD, Urquhart E, Young JR.  1997.  The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition.  Journal of the Geological Society 154 (2): 2

Manzello D. P., Enochs I. C., Melo N., Gledhill D. K. & Johns E. M., 2012. Ocean acidification refugia of the Florida Reef Tract. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41715. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041715.

Metzger R., et al. 2007. Influence of elevated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the edible crab Cancer pagurus. J Therm Biol. 32: 144-151.

Morse J. W., Andersson A. J., and Mackenzie F. T. 2006. Initial responses of carbonate-rich shelf sediments to rising atmospheric pCO2 and “ocean acidification”: Role of high Mg-calcites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 5814-5830.

Olafsson, J., Olafsdottir, S.R., Benoit-Cattin, A., Danielsen, M., Arnarson, T.S. and Takahashi, T., 2009. Rate of Iceland Sea acidification from time series measurements. Biogeosciences, 6(11): 2661-2668.

OSPAR. 2012. Available at:

Palacios S, Zimmerman RC. 2007. Response of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) to CO2 enrichment: Possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 344: 1–13.

Pörtner H.-O., et al. 2011 Effects of ocean acidification on nektonic organisms. In Ocean Acidification. Edited by Gattuso J-P, Hansson L. Oxford University Press:154-175.

Rau, G. H. 2008. Electrochemical splitting of calcium carbonate to increase solution alkalinity: Implications for mitigation of carbon dioxide and ocean acidity. Environmental Science and Technology 42, 8935–8940.

Rau, G. H. 2011. CO2 mitigation via capture and chemical conversion in seawater. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 1088–1092.

Rau, G.H., McLeod, E.L., Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2012. The need for new ocean conservation strategies in a high-carbon dioxide world. Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1555

Richey, J. E., et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2, Nature, 416, 617–620.

Ridgwell, A., Schmidt, D. N. 2010. Past constraints on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release. Nat. Geosci, 3, 196–200.

Riebesell, U., Fabry, V.J., Hansson, L., and Gattuso, J.-P. 2010. Guide to best practices for ocean acidification research and data reporting. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union,  260 p., accessed August 4, 2011, at

Riebesell, U., Zondervan, I., Rost, B., Tortell, P. D., Zeebe, R., & Morel, F. M. M. 2000. Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 364–367.

Robbins, L. L., Hanson, M. E., Kleypas, J. A., & Meylan, S. C. 2010. CO2calc—A user-friendly seawater carbon calculator for Windows, Max OS X, and iOS (iPhone). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1280, 17 p.

Royal Society. 2009. Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty, policy document 10/09. London, UK: The Royal Society.

Sabine, C.L., Feely, R.A., Gruber, N., Key, R.M., Lee, K., Bullister, J.L., Wanninkhof, R., Wong, C.S., Wallace, D.W.R., Tilbrook, B., Millero, F.J., Peng, T.-H., Kozyr, A., Ono,  T., and A.F. Rios, A.F. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305, 367-371.

Schuiling R.D., de Boer P.L. 2011. Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification.  Earth System Dynamics Discussions 2: 551–568.

Semesi  I.S., et al. 2009. Seagrass photosynthesis controls rates of calcification and photosynthesis of calcareous macroalgae within a seagrass meadow. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 382: 41–47.

Shakum, J.D., Clark, P.U., He, F., Marcott, S.A., Mix, A.C., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B., Schmittner, A., and Bard, E.  2012.  Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation.  Nature 484:49-54.

Tans, P. P., De Jong, A. F. M., Mook, W. G. 1979. Natural atmospheric 14C and the Suess effect. Nature, 280, 826-828.

Tittensor DP, Baco AR, Hall-Spencer JM, Orr JC, Rogers AD. 2010. Seamounts as refugia from ocean acidification for cold-water stony corals. Marine Ecology 31, 212-225.

Tribollet A., Godinot C., Atkinson M., and Langdon C. 2009. Effects of elevated pCO2 on dissolution of coral carbonates by microbial euendoliths. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, doi:10.1029/2008GB003286.

Trolle, D., PA Staehr, TA Davidson, R Bjerring, TL Lauridsen, M Sondergaard, and E Jeppesen. 2012.  Seasonal dynamics of CO2 flux across the surface of shallow temperate lakes.  Ecosystems, 15(2): 336-347, doi: 10.1007/s10021-011-9513-z.

Turley C., Keizer T., Williamson P., Gattuso J.-P., Ziveri P., Munroe R., Boot K., M. Huelsenbeck. 2011. Hot, Sour and Breathless – Ocean under stress. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme, European Project on Ocean Acidification, Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Climate project, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, OCEANA; 6pp. ISBN: 978-0-9519618-6-5.

Uchikawa, J. and Zeebe, R. 2008. Influence of terrestrial weathering on ocean acidification and the next glacial inception. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L23608.

UNFCCC. 2010. Decision 1/CP.16. Available at:

UNGA. 2012. The future we want, A/66/L.56. Available at:

Walker, J. C. G., Hays, P. B., Kasting, J. F. 1981. A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilizations of Earth’s surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9776-9782.

Watson-Wright, W. 2012. Oceans could be 150% more acidic by 2100. RTCC. Available at:

West JM and Salm RV. 2003. Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conserv Biol 17: 956–967

Williamson, P. and Turley, C. 2012. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 370, 4317–4342. doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0167

Whitfield, M. 1974. Temperature, fossil CO2 accumulation and carbonate ion concentration of the oceanic mixed layer. Nature 249, 818–820.

Whitfield, M. 1975. (reply to Fairhall & Erickson, 1975) Nature 254, 274–275.

Wootton, J. T., C. A. Pfister, J. D. Forester. 2008. Dynamical patterns and ecological impacts of changing ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:18848-18853.

Yates, K.K., DuFore, C., and Robbins, L.L.  In press.  Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments.  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report.  2012-XXX.

Zachos, J. C., Röhl, U., Schellenberg, S. A., Sluijs, A., Hodell, D. A., Kelly, D. C., Thomas, E., Micah, N., Raffi, I., Lourens, L. J., McCarren, H., and Kroon, D. 2005. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science, 308, 1611-1615.

Zeebe, R.E. & Wolf-Gladrow, D.A. 2001. CO2 in seawater: equilibrium, kinetics and isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series Vol 65, Elsevier, 346 pp.

Zimen, K. E. & Alttenhein, F. K. 1973. The future burden of industrial CO2 on the atmosphere and the oceans. Naturwissenschaften 60, 198–199

Last updated: September 21, 2012