Website as pdf file
Download the entire GBF-OOI website as a pdf file here. (2.6mb)
Fig. 1. Settling particles a low magnification photomicrograph of typical exported ocean particles intercepted by a mesopelagic TS-trap deployed in the carbonate ocean. A variety of zooplankton fecal pellets, several species of planktonic foraminifer tests, pteropod shells, large diatom frustules, and coccospheres are seen. Amorphous aggregates (marine snow flakes are loaded by coccoliths (not resolved under this low magnification). The fecal pellet at the mid-left of the photo is approximately 150 micrometer long. Biogeochemical investigation of the exported particles uses the mole values of the majority of elements from total export particles, POC, PIC (CaCO3) and Biogenic Si (SiO2).
Fig. 2. A 3-D illustration of proposed GBF-OOI array, which consists of 4 moorings. Objectives, capabilities and technology of each mooring are detailed in section 3 and 4 of this white paper. MBARI’s high endurance ROV Tethys with miniature microbial sampler (Poster 1) has not been tested as of yet.
Fig. 3. Photograph of a prototype of the Incubation Productivity Sampler (IPS). The IPS is an autonomous micro-laboratory that will conduct multiple in situ end point (t0, t1) or time course (e.g., t0, t1, t2, t3) time series incubations for up to 1 year to obtain 13C primary production, 15N nitrogen fixation, 18O gross production, respiration values.
Fig. 5. Recovery of a TS-trap from ice-floe filled Ross Sea, Soutern Ocean by the JGOFS mooring team from Oregon State University.
Fig. 8. An outcome of the global JGOFS experiment. Distribution of POC, PIC and Biogenic Si in mmolC m-2 yr-1 parameterized from TS-traps deployed for a year from 134 stations (uppermost figure) during the period of 1983 to early 2000 (Honjo et al., 2008).
Fig. 9. A Time-Series (TS) Sediment Trap A TS-Trap is made exclusively of innert palstic material and titanium in order to avoid contamination of samples during long term deployements in ocean environments. In fact, the TS-trap in this photo has been used for several 12-month-deployement cycles yet looks brand new!
Fig. 11. The Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) is a device developed by MBARI that allows for autonomous sample acquisition and application of DNA, RNA and protein probe arrays in situ and transmit the assay results on semi-real time. The linked Oceanography article (Scholin et al., 2009) summarizes the function, application and future development of the ESP technology. ESPs are commercially available.
Fig. 12. Example illustrating use of the ESP to detect groups of marine bacterioplankton in Monterey Bay spring, 2008. The bottom panel shows arrays developed and imaged by the ESP. Changes in the microbial rRNA pool were observed, most notably was the appearance and disappearance of Marine G2 Euryarchaea (red boxes). In contrast, MAlph was present on all arrays developed.
Fig. 13. An ESP assay in Monterey Bay, summer, 2007 on invertebrates and harmful algal toxin (domoic acid). For detail, link Fig. 11, p. 162.
Fig. 14. Mooring C. ESP and MMP mooring scheme. An ESP is deployed at 20 m via ADA. Power to operate ESP and data transmission is supplied by the Micro Grid buoy via flexible EM cable and a steel stabilizer float. MMP shuttles between lower epipelagic zone and benthic layer to collect contextual data.
Fig. 15a. Water Transfer System (WTS) for time series filter collection of the particulate fraction from up to 10 L of water that collected in aluminum foil/Tedlar sandwich bags to prevent loss of gaseous sample. b: RAS for time series collection of 500 ml whole water samples (or filtrates) with/without preservative.
Fig 15b. Remote Access Sampler (RAS) for time series collection of 500 ml whole water samples (or filtrates) with/without preservative.
Fig. 16. Mooring D. This moring supports sample acquisition of water, suspended particle and descrete deep water samples for microbial study in time-seres syschoronized with the rest of instruments on other morrings, for subsequent chemical and biological analyses.
Fig. 17. Automated Microbial Sampler (AMS) is capable of obtaining descrete filtered microbial (e.g., phytoplankton, bacteria) samples via flow through filter units & a sample preservation circuit to that will permit the active chemical preservation of the filtered samples within seconds of completion of sampling.
Fig. 19. An example of Syntactic underwater floatation that was just recovered on board R/VMirai in 2004 with the cooperation of WHOI engineers. Instrument wells on Mooring A and B provide fully exposed platform for IPS-15 m (Fig. 4) and a launching/garage facility for the epipelagic micro-profiler (Fig. 10).
Movie: Environmental Sample Processor (ESP)
Animation demonstrating the electro-mechanics and micro-fluvial movements of ESP through; 1.sample collection, 2.moving a sample pack to reaction, 3.taking photomicrograph of assay pattern, 4.scan-digitize the image for transmission. (Courtesy of Dr. Chris Scholin and MBARI)