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Contact information
Associate Scientist
Clark 213A, Mailstop #29
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Woods Hole, MA 02543
1 508 289 2801

Ph.D., Physical Oceanography, MIT/WHOI Joint Program, 2004.
B.S., Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, 1997.

Research Interests

How did we get here? Before tackling what the climate of the 21st Century will look like, we have very little data that actually tells us how ocean properties came to look the way they do. Large changes have occurred since the Little Ice Age over the last few hundred years, and before that, even larger changes occurred at the end of the Last Ice Age over the last 20,000 years. My focus is to combine the best observations from the instrumental record as well as paleoceanographic archives to reconstruct the evolution of the climate-relevant properties of heat and carbon leading up to the present day. Due to the lack of observations over decadal to millennial timescales, I use inverse methods to combine physical/biogeochemical models and the data records. In this work, we seek the answer to such questions as: Where did the CO2 in today's atmosphere come from? How are the alternating warm and cool periods of the distant past still affecting the ocean today? Past climate reconstructions ultimately will inform our understanding of the future climate of the 21st Century and beyond.

  • Connecting physical oceanography, paleoceanography, and climate dynamics
  • Estimating past ocean circulation and its role in paleoclimate, using physical models and biogeochemical records
  • Large-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, with focus on ENSO
  • Analysis of climate variability through state estimation, especially the synthesis of general circulation models and observations


MIT/WHOI Joint Program course 12.805, "Data Analysis in Physical Oceanography", Class Notes, Chapter 1, 2016-2017

Advanced Climate Dynamics Course (ACDC) summer school organizer and lecturer

MIT/WHOI Joint Program course 12.808, "Introduction to Observational Physical Oceanography", 2013-2015

Advising and Supervising
  • Postdoctoral Investigator: Thomas Chalk
  • Graduate Students: Gregory Streletz (UC Davis), Ailin Brakstad (U. Bergen), Isabela Le Bras (summer advisor)
  • Summer Student Fellows: Joey Wenig (2012), Tsung-Lin Hsieh (2013), Yuxin Zhou (2015)
  • Thesis Committee Member for: Fern Gibbons (Ph.D., 2011), Holly Dail (Ph.D., 2012), Dan Amrhein (M.S., 2014), Ning Zhao (Ph.D., 2017), Marianna Linz (Ph.D., 2017), Laura Fleming

Recent Publications

For a complete list, see here.

Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, 2017: “The Little Ice Age and 20th Century deep Pacific cooling,” submitted. PDF   Animation of step-function dye release

Zhao, N., O. Marchal, L. D. Keigwin, D. E. Amrhein, and G. Gebbie, 2017: “A synthesis of deglacial deep-sea radiocarbon records and a test of their consistency with modern ocean circulation,” in press, Paleoceanography.

Gebbie, G., and T.-L. Hsieh*, 2017: “Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation,” Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 24, 351–366, doi:10.5194/npg-24-351-2017. *-Summer Student Fellow. PDF

Purkey, S.G., W.M. Smethie, G. Gebbie, A.L. Gordon, R.E. Sonnerup, M.J. Warner, and J.L. Bullister, 2017: “A Synoptic View of the Ventilation and Circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water from Chlorofluorocarbons,” Annual Review of Marine Science, doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063414. PDF

Gebbie, G., G. J. Streletz, and H. J. Spero, 2016: “How well would the modern-day property
distributions be known with paleoceanographic-like observational sampling?” Paleoceanography, 31, doi:10.1002/2015PA002917. PDF (Highlighted as an
Eos Research Spotlight.)

Streletz, G.J., G. Gebbie, B. Hamann, and O. Kreylos, 2016: “Interpolating Sparse Scattered Data Using Flow Information,” J. Computational Sci., 16, pp. 156-169, doi:10.1016/j.jocs.2016.04.001.

Gebbie, G.,C.D. Peterson, L.E. Lisiecki, and H.J. Spero, 2015: "Global-mean marine d13C and its uncertainty in a glacial state estimate," Quaternary Science Reviews, 125, doi://10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.08.010. PDF    Download numerical output

Amrhein, D.E., G. Gebbie, O. Marchal, and C. Wunsch, 2015: "Inferring surface water equilibrium calcite d18O during the last deglacial from benthic foraminiferal d18O records: Implications for ocean circulation," Paleoceanography, 30, 1470–1489, doi:10.1002/2014PA002743.

Thornalley, D. J. R., H. Bauch, G. Gebbie, S. Barker, and L. Skinner, 2015: "A poorly ventilated deep Arctic Mediterranean during the last glacial," Science, 349, 706-710.

Kronenberger, M., C. Weber, G. Gebbie, O. Kreylos, L.H. Kellogg, L.E. Lisiecki, C. Peterson, H.J. Spero, B. Hamann, and H. Hagen, 2015: "A Novel Distance Measure for Ocean Reconstruction from Sparse Observations Demonstrated on the Atlantic," in: Talbot, J., Keahey, A. and Wright, W., eds., Proceedings of IEEE Scientific Visualization 2015 (SciVis 2015) -- Visualization in Practice, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California. PDF

Gebbie, G., "How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal?" Paleoceanography, 29, doi:10.1002/2013PA002557. PDF including auxiliary material.    Download numerical output

See the Publications tab for a complete list.

Last updated: January 19, 2018

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