The Harmful Algae Page

Trophic Linkages between HABs and Their Ecosystems

The conceptual model below illustrates routings through which toxins impact many different trophic compartments (the colored boxes are hotlinks). Low oxygen levels in bottom water caused by non-toxic algae may also have adverse effects on the ecosystem. (Modified from Smayda, 1992)
Transfer of Toxins through the Food Web

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