Please note: You are viewing the unstyled version of this website. Either your browser does not support CSS (cascading style sheets) or it has been disabled. Skip navigation.


   Print  PDF  Change text to small (default) Change text to medium Change text to large

Contact information
Associate Scientist
Clark 213A, Mailstop #29
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Woods Hole, MA 02543
1 508 289 2801

Ph.D., Physical Oceanography, MIT/WHOI Joint Program, 2004.
B.S., Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, 1997.

Research Interests

How did we get here? Before tackling what the climate of the 21st Century will look like, we have very little data that actually tells us how ocean properties came to look the way they do. Large changes have occurred since the Little Ice Age over the last few hundred years, and before that, even larger changes occurred at the end of the Last Ice Age over the last 20,000 years. My focus is to combine the best observations from the instrumental record as well as paleoceanographic archives to reconstruct the evolution of the climate-relevant properties of heat and carbon leading up to the present day. Due to the lack of observations over decadal to millennial timescales, I use inverse methods to combine physical/biogeochemical models and the data records. In this work, we seek the answer to such questions as: Where did the CO2 in today's atmosphere come from? How are the alternating warm and cool periods of the distant past still affecting the ocean today? Past climate reconstructions ultimately will inform our understanding of the future climate of the 21st Century and beyond.

  • Connecting physical oceanography, paleoceanography, and climate dynamics
  • Estimating past ocean circulation and its role in paleoclimate, using physical models and biogeochemical records
  • Large-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, with focus on ENSO
  • Analysis of climate variability through state estimation, especially the synthesis of general circulation models and observations


MIT/WHOI Joint Program course 12.805, "Data Analysis in Physical Oceanography", Class Notes, Chapter 1, 2016-2017

MIT/WHOI Joint Program course 12.808, "Introduction to Observational Physical Oceanography", 2013-2015

Advanced Climate Dynamics Course (ACDC) summer school organizer

MIT/WHOI Joint Program course 12.808, "Introduction to Observational Physical Oceanography", 2013-2015

Advising and Supervising

Postdoctoral Investigator: Thomas Chalk

Graduate Students: Gregory Streletz (UC Davis), Isabela Le Bras (summer advisor)

Summer Student Fellows: Joey Wenig (2012), Tsung-Lin Hsieh (2013), Yuxin Zhou (2015)

Thesis Committee Member for: Fern Gibbons (Ph.D., 2011), Holly Dail (Ph.D., 2012), Dan Amrhein (M.S., 2014), Marianna Linz (Ph.D. candidate)

Selected Publications

Gebbie, G., G. J. Streletz, and H. J. Spero, 2016: “How well would the modern-day property
distributions be known with paleoceanographic-like observational sampling?” Paleoceanography, 31, doi:10.1002/2015PA002917. (Highlighted as an Eos Research Spotlight.)

Gebbie, G.,C.D. Peterson, L.E. Lisiecki, and H.J. Spero, "Global-mean marine d13C and its uncertainty in a glacial state estimate," Quaternary Science Reviews, 125, doi://10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.08.010.

Gebbie, G., "How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal?" Paleoceanography, 29, doi:10.1002/2013PA002557. Also see auxiliary material.

H. Lopez, B.P. Kirtman, E. Tziperman and G. Gebbie, "Impact of Interactive Westerly Wind Bursts on CCSM3", Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 59, pp. 24-51, doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2012.11.0001, 2013.

Gebbie, G., "Tracer transport timescales and the observed Atlantic-Pacific lag in the timing of the last Termination," Paleoceanography, 27, PA3225, doi:10.1029/2011PA002273, 2012.

Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, "The mean age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observations: sensitivity to surface sources and accounting for mixing histories," J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42 (2), DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-043.1, pp. 291–305, 2012.

Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, “How is the ocean filled?,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06604, doi:10.1029/2011GL046769, 2011.

Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, “Total matrix intercomparison: a method for determining the geometry of water-mass pathways,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (8), doi:10.1175/2010JPO4272.1, 1710– 1728, 2010.

Gebbie, G., and E. Tziperman, “Predictability of SST-modulated westerly wind bursts,” J. Climate, 22, 3894-3909, 2009.

Gebbie, G., I. Eisenman, A. Wittenberg, and E. Tziperman, “Could ocean modulated wind bursts lead to improved forecasts of El Nino?” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 (9), 2007.

Gebbie, G., I. Eisenman, A. Wittenberg, and E. Tziperman, “Modulation of Westerly Wind Bursts by Sea Surface Temperature: A Semi-Stochastic Feedback for ENSO,” J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 3281– 3295, doi:10.1175/JAS4029.1, 2007.

Huybers. P., G. Gebbie, and O. Marchal, “Can Paleoceanographic Tracers Constrain Meridional Circulation Rates?” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 (2), 394–407, doi:10.1175/JPO3018.1, 2007.

Gebbie, G., “Does Eddy Subduction Matter in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean?” J. Geophys. Res., 112, C06007, doi:10.1029/2006JC003568, 2007.  

Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, “Meridional Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum Explored Through a Combination of δ18O Observations and a Geostrophic Inverse Model,” Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q11N07, doi:10.1029/2006GC001383, 2006.

 Gebbie, G., P. Heimbach, and C. Wunsch, “Strategies for Nested and Eddy-Permitting State Estimation,” J. Geophys. Res., 111, C10073, doi:10.1029/2005JC003094, 2006.

Last updated: May 15, 2017

whoi logo

Copyright ©2007 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, All Rights Reserved, Privacy Policy.
Problems or questions about the site, please contact