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From Johnson (2011b): DNA and RNA labeling of Mesodinium rubrum to reveal the cryptophycean and ciliate nuclei. A. A dividing cell with each daughter cell containing two macronuclei (Mac), the micronucleus undergoing karyokinesis, and only one daughter cell possessing a karyokleptic nucleus (KN) acquired from its cryptophyte prey, Geminigera cryophila. The cell is stained with the general nucleic acid stain DAPI; B. Two M. rubrum cells dual labeled with in situ hybridization probes for the M. rubrum (pink; cy- 5) and G. cryophila (green; FITC) SSU rRNA genes.

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From Johnson (2011a): Images of the acquired phototrophs: the foraminifera Orbulina universa with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (a), the cnidarian Chlorohydra with endosymbiotic Chlorella in its endoderm tissue (b), the oligotrich ciliate Strombidium sp. (perhaps S. oculatum) with green algal plastids (c), a kleptoplastidic dinoflagellate from the Ross Sea with Phaeocystis antarctica organelles (d), and the sea slug Elysia chlorotica with plastids from Vaucheria litorea (e).

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Journal Articles
Johnson MD (2014) Inducible mixotrophy in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. J Euk Microbiol. oi: 10.1111/jeu.12198. [Epub ahead of print]

Keeling, PJ, et al. (2014) The marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptome sequencing project (MMETSP): illuminating the functional diversity of eukaryotic life in the oceans through transcriptome sequencing. PLOS Biology. 12(6): e1001889

Hansen PJ, Nielson LT, Johnson MD*, Berge T, Flynn KR (2013) Acquired phototrophy in Mesodinium and Dinophysis- a review of cellular organization, prey selectivity, nutrient uptake and bioenergetics. Harmful Algae. 28: 126-139

Johnson MD, Stoecker DK, Marshall, HG (2013) Seasonal dynamics of Mesodinium rubrum in Chesapeake Bay. J Plank Res. 35: 877-893

Johnson MD (2011b) Acquired phototrophy in ciliates: a review of cellular interactions and structural adaptations. JEM doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2011.00545.x


Moeller, HV, Johnson, MD, Falkowski, PG (2011) Photoacclimation in the phototrophic marine ciliate, Mesodinium rubrum (Ciliophora). J Phycol 47(2): 324-332


Johnson MD (2011a) The acquisition of phototrophy: adaptive strategies of hosting endosymbionts and organelles. Photosynth Res 107: 117-132


Stoecker DK, Johnson MD, de Vargas C, Not, F (2009) Acquired phototrophy in aquatic protists. Aquat Microb Ecol. 57: 279-310


Johnson MD, Volker J, Moeller HV, Laws E, Breslauer KJ, Falkowski PG (2009) Universal constant for heat production in protists. PNAS 106: 6696-6699


Johnson MD, Oldach D, Delwiche, CF, Stoecker DK, (2007) Retention of transcriptionally active cryptophyte nuclei by the ciliate Myrionecta rubra. Nature 445: 426-428


Johnson MD, Stoecker DK, Tengs T, Oldach D (2006) Sequestration and performance of cryptophyte plastids in Myrionecta rubra. J Phycol 42: 1236-1246


Johnson MD, Stoecker DK (2005) The role of feeding in growth and the photophysiology of Myrionecta rubra. Aquat Microb Ecol. 39: 303-312


Johnson MD, Tengs T, Oldach D, Stoecker DK (2004) Highly divergent SSU rRNA genes found in the marine ciliates Myrionecta rubra and Mesodinium pulex. Protist 155: 347-359


Johnson MD, Rome M, Stoecker DK (2003) Microzooplankton grazing on Prorocentrum minimum and Karlodinium micrum in Chesapeake Bay. Limnol Oceanogr 48: 238-248


Gustafson Jr. DE, Stoecker DK, Johnson MD, Van Heukelem WF, Sneider K (2000) Cryptophyte algae are robbed of their organelles by the marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Nature 405: 1049-1052

Last updated: May 14, 2015

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