Organic Geochemistry Analysis Laboratory

GCxGC Facility

GC×GC Publications

Peacock, E.E., Nelson, R.K., Solow, A.R., Warren, J.D., Baker, J.L., and Reddy, C.M., (2005).  The West Falmouth oil spill: 100 kg of oil persists in marsh sediments.  Environmental Forensics 6, 273-281.

Arey, J. S., Nelson, R. K., Xu, L., and Reddy, C. M., (2005).  Estimating partitioning properties for a complete set of diesel fuel hydrocarbons using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography retention indices.  Analytical Chemistry77(22), 7172-7182.

Nelson, R.K., Kile, B.S., Plata, D.L., Sylva, S.P., Xu, L., Reddy, C.M. Gaines, R.B., Frysinger, G.S., and Reichenbach, S.E., (2006).  Tracking the Weathering of an Oil Spill with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.  Environmental Forensics 7, 33-44. 

Slater, G.F., Nelson, R.K., Kile, B.K., and Reddy, C.M., (2006).  Intrinsic Bacterial Biodegradation of Petroleum Contamination Demonstrated in situ Using Natural Abundance, Molecular-level 14C Analysis.  Organic Geochemistry 37(9), 981-989.

Peacock, E.E., Hampson, G.R., Nelson, R.K., Xu, L., Frysinger, G.S., Gaines, R.B., Farrington, J.W., Tripp, B.W., and Reddy, C.M., (2007).  The 1974 Spill of the Bouchard 65 Oil Barge: Petroleum Hydrocarbons Persist in Winsor Cove Salt Marsh Sediments.  Marine Pollution Bulletin  54(2), 214-225.

Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Sylva, S.P., Xu, L., Peacock, E.E., Raghuraman, B., and Mullins, O.C., (2007).  Identification and Quantification of Alkene-based Drilling Fluids in Crude Oils by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection.  Journal of Chromatography A  1148(1), 100-107.

DeMello, J.A., Carmichael, C.A., Peacock, E.E., Nelson, R.K., Arey, J.S., and Reddy, C.M., (2007). Biodegradation and Environmental Behavior of Biodiesel Mixtures in the Sea: An Initial Study.  Marine Pollution Bulletin  54(7), 894-904.

Arey, J.S., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., (2007).  Disentangling Oil Weathering Using GC×GC, Part I.  Chromatogram Analysis.  Environmental Science & Technology  41(16), 5738-5746.  

Arey, J.S., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., (2007).  Disentangling Oil Weathering Using GC×GC, Part II.  Mass Transfer Calculations.  Environmental Science & Technology 41(16), 5738-5746.

Ventura, G.T., Kenig, F., Reddy, C.M., Schieber, J., Frysinger, G.S., Nelson, R.K., Gaines, R.B., and Schaeffer, P., (2007).  Molecular Evidence of Late Archean Archea and the Presence of a Subsurface Hydrothermal Biosphere.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America  104(36), 14260-14265.

Mullins, O.C., Ventura, G.T., Nelson, R.K., Betancourt, S.S., Raghuraman, B., Reddy, C.M. (2008).  Visible-near-infrared spectroscopy by downhole fluid analysis coupled with two-dimensional gas chromatography to address oil reservoir complexity.  Energy & Fuels 22, 496-503.

Pagnallo, K., Nelson, R.K., Teuten, E.L., Pedler, B.E., and Reddy, C.M. (2008).  Expanding the range of dehalogenated 1’-methyl-1,2’-bipyrroles (MBPs) using GC/ECNI-MS and GC×GC/TOF-MS.  Chemosphere 71, 1557-1565.

Ventura, G.T., Kenig, F., Reddy, C.M., Frysinger, G.S., Nelson, R.K., Van Mooy, B., and Gaines, R.B. (2008).  Resolving the composition and formation of unresolved complex mixtures extracted from late Archean metasediments by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).  Organic Geochemistry 39, 846-867.

Wardlaw, G., Arey, J.S., Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Ventura, G.T., and Valentine, D.L. (2008).  Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seep using GC×GC: Broad metabolic specificity accompanies subsurface petroleum biodegradation.  Environmental Science & Technology 42(19), 7166-7173.

Betancourt, S.S., Ventura, G.T., Pomerantz, A.E., Viloria, O., Dubost, F.X., Zuo, J., Monson, G., Bustamante, D., Purcell, J.M., Nelson, R.K., Rodgers, R.P., Reddy, C.M., Marshall, A.G., and Mullins, O.C. (2009).  Nanoaggregates of asphaltenes in a reservoir crude oil and reservoir connectivity.  Energy & Fuels 23(3), 1178-1188.

Farwell, C., Reddy, C.M., Peacock, E.E., Nelson R.K., Washburn, L., and Valentine, D.L. (2009).  Weathering and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleum seeps near coal oil point, CA.  Environmental Science & Technology 43(10), 3542-3548.

Peacock, E.E., Arey, J.S., De Mello, J.A., McNichol, A.P., Nelson, R.K., and Reddy, C.M. (2010).  Molecular and isotopic analysis of motor oil from a biodiesel-driven vehicle.  Energy & Fuels 24(2), 1037-1042.

Valentine, D.L., Reddy, C.M., Farwell, C., Hill, T.M., Pizarro, O., Yoerger, D.R., Camilli, R., Nelson, R.K., Peacock, E.E., Bagby, S.C., Clarke, B.A., Roman, C.N., and Soloway, M. (2010).  Asphalt volcanoes as a potential source of methane to late Pleistocene coastal waters.  Nature Geoscience 3(5), 345-348.

Pomerantz, A.E., Ventura, G.T., McKenna, A.M., Canas, J.A., Auman, J.,  Koerner, K., Curry, D., Nelson R.K., Reddy, C.M., and Rodgers, R.P. (2010).  Combining biomarker and bulk compositional gradient analysis to assess reservoir connectivity.  Organic Geochemistry 41(8), 812-822.

Ventura, G.T., Raghurman, B., Nelson R.K., Mullins, O.C., and Reddy, C.M. (2010).  Compound class oil fingerprinting techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).  Organic Geochemistry 41(9), 1026-1035.

Jensen, B.A., Reddy, C.M., Nelson R.K., and Hahn, M.E. (2010).  Developing tools for risk assessment in protected species: Relative potencies inferred from competitive binding of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptors from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and mouse.  Aquatic Toxicology 100(3), 238-245.

Lemkau, K.L., Peacock, E.E., Nelson R.K., Ventura, G.T., Kovecses, J.L., and Reddy, C.M., (2010).  The M/V Cosco Busan spill: Source Identification and short-term fate.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(11), 2123-2129.

Juyal, P., McKenna, A.M., Yen, A., Rodgers, R.P., Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Andrews, A.B., Atolia, E., Allenson, S.J., Mullins, O.C., Marshall, A.G., (2011).  Analysis and Identification of Biomarkers and Origin of Color in a Bright Blue Crude Oil.  Energy Fuels 25(1), 172-182.

Ventura, G.T., Hall, G.J., Nelson, R.K., Frysinger, G.S., Raghuraman,B., Pomerantz, A.E., Mullins, O.C., Reddy, C.M., (2011).  Analysis of petroleum compositional similarity using multiway principal components analysis (MPCA) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic data.  Journal of Chromatography A 1218(18), 2584-2592.

Wardlaw, G.D., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Valentine, D.L., (2011).  Biodegradation preference for isomers of alkylated naphthalenes and benzothiophenes in marine sediment contaminated with crude oil.  Organic Geochemistry 42(6), 630-639.

Eiserbeck, C., Nelson, R.K., Grice, K., Curiale, J., Reddy, C.M., Raiteri, P., (2011).  Separation of 18α(H)-, 18β(H)-oleanane and lupane by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  Journal of Chromatography A 1218(32), 5549-5553.

Reddy, C.M., Arey, J., Seewald, J.S., Sylva, S.P., Lemkau, K.L.,  Nelson, R.K., Carmichael, C.A., McIntyre, C.P., Fenwick, J., Ventura, G. T., Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Camilli, R., (2011).  Composition and fate of gas and oil released to the water column during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, published ahead of print July 18, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1101242108  1-6.

Ventura, G.T., Simoneit, B.R.T., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., (2012).  The composition, origin and fate of complex mixtures in the maltene fractions of hydrothermal petroleum assessed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  Organic Geochemistry,  45(1), 48-65.

Carmichael, C.A., Arey, J.S. Graham, W.M., Linn, L.J., Lemkau, K.L., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., (2012).  Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application.  Environmental Research Letters 7, 015301, 6 pages.

Tcaciuc, A.P., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Gschwend, P.M., (2012).  Estimating phospholipid membrane-water partition coefficients using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3449-3456.

White, H.K., Hsing, P-Y., Cho, W., Shank, T.M., Cordes, E.E., Quattrini, A.M., Nelson, R.K., Camilli, R., Demopoulos, A.W.J., German, C.R., Brooks, J.M., Roberts, H.H., Shedd, W., Reddy, C.M., Fisher, C.R., (2012).  Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on a deep-water coral community in the Gulf of Mexico.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, published ahead of print February 28, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1118029109  1-6.

Eiserbeck, C., Nelson, R.K., Grice, K., Curiale, J., Reddy, C.M., (2012).  Comparison of GC-MS, GC-MRM-MS, and GC× GC to characterise higher plant biomarkers in Tertiary oils and rock extracts.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 87, 299-322.

Aeppli, C., Carmichael, C.A., Nelson, R.K., Lemkau, K.A., Graham, W.M., Redmond, M.C., Valentine, D.L., Reddy, C.M., (2012).  Oil Weathering after the Deepwater Horizon Disaster Led to the Formation of Oxygenated Residues.  Environmental Science & Technology 46, 8799-8807.

White, H.K., Hsing, P-Y., Cho, W., Shank, T.M., Cordes, E.E., Quattrini, A.M., Nelson, R.K., Camilli, R., Demopoulos, A.W.J., German, C.R., Brooks, J.M., Roberts, H.H., Shedd, W., Reddy, C.M., Fisher, C.R., (2012).  Reply to Boehm and Carragher: Multiple lines of evidence link deep-water coral damage to Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, published ahead of print July, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1210413109  1 page.

McKenna, A.M., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Savory, J.J., Kaiser, N.K., Marshall, A.G., Rodgers, R.P., (2013).  Expansion of the Analytical Window for Oil Spill Characterization by Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Beyond Gas Chromatography.  Environmental Science & Technology 47, 7530-7539.

Aeppli, C., Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Kellermann, M.Y., Valentine, D.L., (2013).  Recurrent Oil Sheens at the Deepwater Horizon Disaster Site Fingerprinted with Synthetic Hydrocarbon Drilling Fluids.  Environmental Science & Technology 47 (15), 8211-8219.

Hall, C., Frysinger, G.S., Aeppli, C., Carmichael, C.A., Gros, J., Lemkau, K.L., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, (2013).  Oxygenated Weathering Products Of Deepwater Horizon Oil Come From Surprising Precursors.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 75, Issues 1–2, 15 October 2013, Pages 140–149.

Dong, C,. Petro, D., Pomerantz, A.E., Nelson, R.K., Latifzai, A.S., Nouvelle, X., Zuo, J.Y., Reddy, C.M., Mullins, O.C., (2014).  New thermodynamic modeling of reservoir crude oil.  Fuel 117, Part A, 30 January 2014, Pages 839–850.

Beaudoin, D.J., Carmichael, C.A., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Teske, A.P., Edgcomb, V.P., (2014).  Impact of protists on a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from deep-sea Gulf of Mexico sediments: a microcosm study.  Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography January 2014.  DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.01.007

Gros, J., Reddy, C.M., Aeppli, C., Nelson, R.K., Carmichael, C.A., Arey, J.S., (2014).  Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.  Environmental Science & Technology 48 (3), 1628-1637.

Radovic, J.R., Aeppki, C., Nelson, R.K., Jimenez, N., Reddy, C.M., Bayona, J.P., Albaiges, J. (2014).  Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 79 (1-2), 15 February 2014, pages 268-277.

Aeppli, C., Nelson, R.K., Radovic, J.R., Carmichael, C.A., Valentine, D.L., Reddy, C.M., (2014).  Recalcitrance and degradation of petroleum biomarkers upon abiotic and biotic natural weathering of Deepwater Horizon oil.  Environmental Science & Technology 48  6726-6734.

Timko, M.T., Schmois, E., Patwardhan, P., Kida, Y. Class, C.A., Green, W.H., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., (2014).  Response of different types of sulfur compounds to oxidative desulfurization of jet fuel.  Energy & Fuels 04/24/2014; 28(5):2977–2983. DOI: 10.1021/ef500216p

Ruddy, B.M., Huettel, M., Kostka, J.E., Lobodin, V.V., Bythell, B.J., McKenna, A.M., Aeppli, C., Reddy, C.M., Nelson, R.K., Marshall, A.G., Rodgers, R.P., (2014).  Targeted Petroleomics: Analytical Investigation of Macondo Well Oil Oxidation Products from Pensacola Beach.  Energy & Fuels 05/2014; 28(6):4043–4050. DOI: 10.1021/ef500427n

Aeppli, C., Nelson, R.K., Carmichael, C.A., Valentine, D.L., Reddy, C.M., (2014).  Biotic and abiotic oil degradation after the Deepwater Horizon disaster leads to formation of recalcitrant oxygenated hydrocarbons: new insights using GC×GC.  2014 International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings (Abstract # 300229). Pages 1087-1098.

Valentine, D.L., Fisher, G.B., Bagby, S.C., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Sylva, S.P., Woo, M.A., (2014).  Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 111 (45) pages 15906-15911.

Koolen, H.H.F., Swarthout, R.F., Nelson, R.K., Chen, H., Krajewski, L.C., Aeppli, C., McKenna, A.M., Rodgers, R.P., Reddy, C.M., (2015).  Unprecedented insights into the chemical complexity of coal tar from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  Energy and Fuels, 29 (2), pages 641–648

O’Neil, G.W., Culler, A.R., Williams, J.R., Burlow, N.P., Gilbert, G.J., Carmichael, C.A., Nelson, R.K., Swarthout, R.F., Reddy C.M., (2015).  Production of Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons as a Coproduct of Algal Biodiesel by Butenolysis of Long-Chain Alkenones.  Energy & Fuels, 29 (2), pages 922–930.

Book Chapters:

Gaines, R.B., Frysinger, G.S., Reddy, C.M., and Nelson, R.K., Oil Spill Environmental Forensics - Fingerprinting and Source Identification  Chapter 5.  Oil Spill Source Identification by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography (GC×GC).  Pages 169-206.  Zhendi Wang and Scott A. Stout, Editors.  Copyright Ó 2007, Elsevier Inc.

Eiserbeck, C., Nelson, R.K., Reddy, C.M., Grice, K., RSC Detection Science Series No.4 – Principles and Practice of Analytical Techniques in Geosciences.  Chapter 12 - Advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC).  Edited by Kliti Grice  Copyright Ó 2015 by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Official Reports:

Irvine, G.V., D.H. Mann, M.G. Carls, L. Holland, C. Reddy, R.K. Nelson, C. Aeppli.  2014.  Lingering Oil on Boulder-Armored Beaches in the Gulf of Alaska 23 Years after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,  Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report (Restoration Project 11100112), U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. 88pp + Appendices (42 pp).

Irvine, G.V., C. Aeppli, M. Carls, R.K. Nelson, L. Holland, C.M. Reddy, D.H. Mann.  2014. Exxon Valdez oil persists on Gulf of Alaska beaches after 23 years:  Using new methods to look at old stranded oil, Chapter 2 (pp. 55-88) in Irvine, G.V. et al.,Lingering Oil on Boulder-Armored Beaches in the Gulf of Alaska 23 Years after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,  Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Restoration Project Final Report (Restoration Project 11100112), U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. 

United States Patents:

2010    United States Patent #7805979 – Application #EP20070854268, Publication #EP2084525 B1 (also published as CA2667523A1CA2667523C, CN101680862ADE602007006229D1, EP2084525A2US7805979US20080105032,WO2008051900A2WO2008051900A3) -High accuracy contamination estimation in hydrocarbon samples using GC×GC.  Inventers – Oliver C Mullins, Robert K. Nelson, Bhavani Raghuraman, Christopher Michael Reddy. Patent application filed October 22, 2007 – publication date April 28, 2010.

2014    United States Patent - Application #US 13/437,759, Publication #US20130060477 A1 (also published as WO2012135858A2 and WO2012135858A3) – Systems and methods for topographic analysis.  Inventors - Ananya Sen Gupta, Christopher M. Reddy, Robert Nelson.  Patent application filed April 2, 2012 – publication date March 7, 2013.  

Last updated: April 8, 2015