Classification Table for Megafauna at the Hawaii-2 Observatory

Observed in video surveys (ROV Jason in 1998 and 1999 and ROV JasonII in 2003 and 2004) and/or camera sled/otter trawl transects (in 2003)

 

Except for those species verified by collection (indicated by *), these classifications are best guesses and subject to change.  Classification was checked first with Tree of Life and then with European Register of Marine Species in June 2006.
Click on the phylum for a webpage devoted to that group of organisms.  Click on the filename prefix for additional photos of that specific type of organism.
*** NOTE FOR BENTHIC VS. PELAGIC: Organisms were classified as benthic if they were observed at least some times on the seafloor. ***

*** Click for a list of all video clips. ***

 

Phylum
Class, Order
Family
Genus, species
(* verified by collection)
Common Name
Filename Prefix
Type Photo
Benthic or Pelagic?
Protoctista?, Granuloreticulosa?
Foraminifera?

Tentatively resembles Bathysiphon, but could be a tube-dwelling worm
Agglutinated foram?
pro_for_1
foram?
Benthic
Protoctista, Xenophyophora Psamminida
Psamminidae
Reticulammina
Xenophyophore
pro_xen_1
xeno Benthic
Protoctista, Xenophyophora Psamminida Psamminidae Plate-like psamminid xenophyophore Xenophyophore pro_xen_2
xeno
Benthic
Protoctista?,
Xenophyophora?


Tentatively resembles Psammetta, but spoke trace could be created by other organism
Xenophyophore spoke trace?
spoke_trace_2
spoke_trace
Benthic

Porifera

Hexactinellida


Perhaps 2 species:
Saccocalyx sp., and
an indeterminate genus of the subfamily Bolosominae

Stalked glass sponge

por_hex_1

stalked_sponge
Benthic
Hexactinellida Pheronematidae? Semperella sp.? Glass sponge por_hex_2 Euplectella
Benthic
Hexactinellida Rossellidae? Crateromorpha sp.? Glass sponge por_hex_3 cauliflower_sponge
Benthic

Hexactinellida


Not determined

Stalked glass sponge

por_hex_4
No photo
Benthic
Hexactinellida Rossellidae Caulophacus sp. Stalked glass sponge
por_hex_5
stalked glass sponge Benthic

Hexactinellida


Not determined, likely a mixture of forms Glass sponge por_hex_6
golf-ball_sponge
Benthic
Hexactinellida Rossellidae? Crateromorpha sp.? Glass sponge por_hex_7 flat_vase_atrium
Benthic
Hexactinellida Euplectellidae? Atlantisella sp.? Glass sponge por_hex_8 white-raised_flat_plate
Benthic
Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida Cladorhizidae
Cladorhiza sp. Carniverous sponge
por_dem_1
cladorhizid
Benthic
Cnidaria

Hydrozoa, Anthomedusae, Capitata
Corymorphidae Branchiocerianthus (imperator?)
Solitary hydroid
cni_hyd_1
Branchiocerianthus
Benthic
Hydrozoa
Not determined
Colonial hydroid cni_hyd_2
hydroid_on_jbox
Benthic
Hydrozoa, Siphonophorae
Not determined
Siphonophore
cni_sip_1
siphonophore
Pelagic
Hydrozoa, Trachymedusae Rhopalonematidae

Voragonema (= Benthocodon) (pedunculata?)

Jellyfish
cni_med_1
Benthocodon
Pelagic
Hydrozoa, Trachymedusae Rhopalonematidae
Crossota (rufobrunnea?)
Jellyfish cni_med_2
Crossota
Pelagic
Hydrozoa, Trachymedusae Rhopalonematidae
Crossota millsae
Jellyfish cni_med_3
Crossota_millsae
Pelagic
Hydrozoa, Narcomedusae
Aeginidae
Aegina (citrea?)
Jellyfish cni_med_4
Aegina
Pelagic
Hydrozoa, Narcomedusae Aeginidae Aegina? Aeginura?
Jellyfish cni_med_5
8-tentacle
Pelagic
Hydrozoa or Scyphozoa
Similar to Poralia
Jellyfish cni_med_6
Poralia-like
Pelagic
Hydrozoa or Scyphozoa
Not determined
Jellyfish cni_med_7
medusa
Pelagic
Anthozoa, Octocorallia Pennatulidae
Not determined
Sea pen
cni_pen_1
seapen
Benthic
Anthozoa?, Octocorallia? Umbellulidae?
Similar to Umbellula
Stalked octocoral?
cni_pen_2
octocoral
Benthic
Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Actiniaria *
Actinoscyphiidae or Actinernidae or Hormathiidae
Actinoscyphia or Actinernus or Actinauge
Sea anemone
cni_act_1
anemone Benthic
Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Actiniaria Actiniidae?
Bolocera? Sea anemone cni_act_2
anemone
Benthic
Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Actiniaria?
Not determined
Sea anemone
cni_act_3
anemone
Benthic
Ctenophora
Lobata

Not determined Lobate ctenophore
cte_1
lobate
Pelagic
Beroida

Not determined Beroid ctenophore
cte_2
beroid
Pelagic
Cydippida

Not determined Cydippid ctenophore
cte_3
cydippid
Pelagic

Platyhelminthes?

Turbellaria?


Not determined Flatworm?
pla_tur_1
flatworm 
Pelagic
Annelida
Polychaeta, Phyllodocida?
Aphroditidae?
Laetmonice? Polychaete worm
ann_pol_1
polychaete
Pelagic
Polychaeta?, Sabellida? Serpulidae?
Not determined Polychaete worm? ann_pol_2
No photo
Benthic
Echiura

Bonelliidae?
Not determined Echiuran worm
spoke_trace_1
spoke_trace
Benthic
Chaetognatha?


Not determined Arrow worm?
arrow_1
arrow
Pelagic
Mollusca
Gastropoda, Prosobranchia Turridae
Majox new species (McLean, in press) *
Snail
mol_gas_1
snail Benthic
Cephalopoda, Octopoda, Cirrata
Opisthoteuthidae?
Similar to Grimpoteuthis
Dumbo octopus
mol_cep_1
octopus
Pelagic
Arthropoda
Crustacea, Copepoda
Not determined, probably several species Copepod
art_cop_1
copepod
Pelagic
Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda Galatheidae
Munidopsis?
Galatheid crab (squat lobster) *
art_cra_1
galatheid
Benthic
Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda Penaeoidea?
Similar to Aristaeomorpha
Shrimp
art_shr_1
shrimp
Pelagic
Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda Sergestoidea?
Not determined Shrimp art_shr_2
shrimp
Pelagic
Crustacea, Peracarida?, Isopoda?
Not determined Similar to munnopsid isopod in water column, yet looks like spider crab on benthos
art_iso 1
isopod_shrimp_crab
Benthic
Crustacea, Peracarida?, Isopoda?
Not determined Similar to isopod
art_iso_2
isopod_crab
Benthic
Crustacea, Peracarida?, Amphipoda?
Not determined Amphipod?
art_amp 1
amphipod
Benthic
Echinodermata





Asteroidea, Brisingida
Freyellidae
Freyastera benthophila *
Sea star
ech_ast_1
brisingid
Benthic
Crinoidea
Bathycrinidae?
Similar to Bathycrinus
Stalked crinoid
ech_cri_1
crinoid
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida? Psychropotidae? Similar to Benthodytes
Sea cucumber
ech_hol_Ben_1
sea_cucumber
Benthic

Holothuroidea, Elasipodida

Pelagothuridae
Enypniastes eximia *

Sea cucumber

ech_hol_Eny_1
Enypniastes
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Aspidochirotida
Synallactidae
Paelopatides
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Pae_1
Paelopatides
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Elpidiidae
Peniagone diaphana *
Sea cucumber
ech_hol_Pen_1
Peniagone
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Elpidiidae
Peniagone or Amperima
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Pen_2
sea_cucumber
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Elpidiidae
Peniagone leander
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Pen_3
Peniagone
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida? Elpidiidae?
Not determined
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Pen_4
sea_cucumber
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Laetmogonidae
Psychronaetes (hanseni?)
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Psn_1
Psychronaetes
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Psychropotidae
Psychropotes semperiana *
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Psp_1
Psychropotes
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Elasipodida Psychropotidae
Psychropotes (verrucosa?)
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Psp_2
Psychropotes
Benthic
Holothuroidea, Aspidochirotida Synallactidae
Synallactes profundi *
Sea cucumber ech_hol_Syn_1
Synallactes
Benthic
Holothuroidea?, Aspidochirotida? Synallactidae?
Similar to Mesothuria
Sea cucumber ech_hol_unid_1
sea_cucumber?
Benthic
Bryozoa


Not determined
Stalked bryozoan
bry_1
bryozoan
Benthic
Chordata (Subphylum Urochordata)
Larvacea
Not determined
Larvacean
uro_larv_1
larvacean
Pelagic

Larvacea


Not determined

Empty larvacean house

larv_house_1

larvacean_house Pelagic
Chordata (Subphylum Urochordata)? Thaliacea?, Salpida?

Not determined Colonial salp?
uro_sal_1
unidentified_string
Pelagic
Ascidiacea?

Not determined Tunicate?
uro_tun_1
tunicate
Benthic
Chordata






Osteichythes
(Bony fish )






Stephanoberycidae Abyssoberyx Stephanoberycid fish_ale_1
alepocephalid
Pelagic
Synodontidae
Bathysaurus (mollis?)
Lizard fish
fish_bat_1
Bathysaurus
Benthic

Gigantactinidae

Gigantactis (perlatus?)

Angler fish

fish_gig_1

Gigantactis
Pelagic

Macrouridae

Coryphaenoides armatus *

Rattail

fish_mac_1

rattail
Pelagic

Ophidiidae

Bassozetus?
Ophidiid
fish_oph_1
ophidiid
Pelagic
Ophidiidae Typhlonus nasus *
Ophidiid fish_oph_2
ophidiid
Pelagic
Ipnopidae
Bathypterois
Tripod fish
fish_tri_1
tripod_fish
Benthic
Ophidiidae? Not determined
Fish, unidentified
fish_unid_1
fish
Pelagic
Ophidiidae? Not determined Fish, unidentified fish_unid_2
fish_juvenile?
Pelagic

Total number of morphotypes of organisms identified: 72.
Benthic organisms: 45 types; planktonic/pelagic fauna: the other 27 types.


*** We would like to thank the following taxonomic specialists for helping identify the animals: D. Calder, D. Cohen, J. Drazen, D. Fautin, A. Gooday, L. Harris, G. Hendler, R. Kaufmann, T. Iwamoto, L. Lovell, J. Ljubenkov, C. Mah, J. Martin, G. Matsumoto, J. McLean, J. Moore, J. Nielsen, D. Pawson, F. Pages, K. Raskoff, A. Rathburn, H. Reiswig, and R. Rosenblatt. ***

*** No barnacles, enteropneusts, pycnogonids, ophiuroids, or urchins have been observed at H2O. ***


Lebensspuren (traces of animal activity)
Common Name
Filename Prefix
Type Photo
Mound, mound arc or row, mound cluster
mound
mound_row
Spoke trace
spoke_trace_1
spoke_trace
Spoke trace
spoke_trace_2
spoke_trace
Track (swath or line)
track
track
Fecal cast
fecal_cast
fecal_coil



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Page updated 26 Dec. 2006 by Stace Beaulieu (stace@whoi.edu)