The scientists who made the surprising discovery of teeming life around hydrothermal vents of the Gal´pagos Rift in 1977 were geologists and geochemists. They had not expected to find spectacular colonies of previously unknown, large animals on the deep seafloor.
Biologists' First Look at Vent CommunitiesGalápagos Rift, 1979
Percolating Through Volcanic Subsurface Rocks, Seawater is Chemically Transformed into Hydrothermal Fluid
The Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography Experiment was the Largest Seafloor Geophysical Experiment Ever Mounted