Quantifying the air-sea exchange of energy and mass, especially during high winds (greater than 20 ms-1), is critical to providing estimates of energy and gas exchange between the surface and deep ocean, and improving the predictive capability of storm forecasting and climate-change models.
Understanding how climate variability will affect ocean circulation, weather patterns, the ocean’s biochemical environment, and marine ecosystems is a compelling driver for multidisciplinary observations.
Turbulent mixing plays a critical role in the transfer of materials within the ocean and in the exchange of energy and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. Horizontal and vertical mixing within the ocean can have a profound effect on a wide variety of biological processes.
The coastal ocean is host to a variety of dynamic and heterogeneous processes, including human influences, that often strongly interact. This results in unique challenges for improved understanding and management of coastal resources in a changing climate.
Many seafloor and all sub-seafloor ecosystems are inextricably linked to, and perhaps an inevitable consequence of, the flow of energy and material between the earth's crust and the deepest portions of the overlying ocean.
Lithospheric movements and interactions at plate boundaries at or beneath the seafloor are responsible for short-term events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.