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Images: Voyages into the Antarctic Winter

ICY RENDEZVOUS—The National Science Foundation?s two research vessels, Nathaniel B. Palmer (left) and Laurence M. Gould, go bow to stern to exchange equipment, supplies, and personnel just west of Marguerite Bay during an unprecedented cruise into the winter pack ice off Antarctica. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, WHOI)

A KRILL'S LIFECYCLE—Krill start life as eggs that sink and hatch in spring. They develop through larval stages as they swim back to the surface, reaching the fourth (furcilia) stage by winter. Krill that hatch at the depth of the Antarctic shelf (300-400 meters) can swim back to surface waters before winter and find phytoplankton to eat before they use up their stored supplies. Furcilia that make it survive their first winter by feeding on algae and zooplankton on the undersurface of pack ice. But krill that hatch in water deeper than 500 meters may starve before they can swim back to the surface, and food. (Illustration by Jayne Doucette, WHOI Graphic Services)

MARGUERITE BAY AND ENVIRONS, on the Western Antarctic Peninsula, was the research site for four Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises. Inset: Antarctica and the southernmost tip of South America, where research vessels depart Punta Arenas, Chile, to cross to Antarctica. (Illustration by Jack Cook, WHOI Graphic Services)

SCIENTIFIC ICE CAPADES—The GLOBEC Southern Ocean winter cruises offered scientists unprecedented opportunities for a variety of studies of this remote, largely unexplored region. Above, Frank Stewart (left) of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Jenny Boe of the University of Nevada collect sea ice cores to study the distribution, activity, and dynamics of sea ice microbes in August 2002. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, WHOI)

FACE TO BEAK—A curious Emperor penguin approaches Nancy Ford, a technician from Raytheon Corp., as she collected ice samples of Antarctica in August 2002. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, WHOI)

GOING FOR THE KRILL—A major focus of the GLOBEC winter cruises to the Southern Ocean was a shrimp-like crustacean called krill, a crucial link in the food chain that supports the thriving community of life around Antarctica. Researchers studied them in a variety of ways. Kendra Daly (right), Kerri Scolardi (middle), and Jason Zimmerman aboard the Palmer deploy a Tucker trawl to catch live krill for experimental studies to measure krill's rates of feeding, growth, and respiration. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, WHOI)

BIOMAPER-II is lifted aboard after a tow through water cleared of ice by the icebreaker Palmer. The vehicle has an acoustic system to detect plankton, a video plankton recorder to take pictures of them, and sensors to measure water properties. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, WHOI)

Divers Melanie Parker and Kerri Scolardi (University of South Florida) collect juvenile stages of krill under pack ice. (Photo by Stian Alesandrini)

SHIP AT REST?The R/V Laurence M. Gould, docked after the 2002 winter cruise, dwarfs the buildings of the U.S. research outpost at Palmer Station, Antarctica. (Photo by Peter Wiebe, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)