|In Situ Laser Raman Spectroscopy in the Deep Ocean
P. G. Brewer, E. T. Peltzer, R. M. Dunk, A. D. Sherman (MBARI, Moss Landing, CA)
E. D. Sloan, K. C. Hester (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)
J. J. Freeman (Washington Univeristy, St. Louis, MO)
We have developed and deployed a deep-sea laser Raman spectrometer (DORISS - Deep Ocean Raman In Situ Spectrometer). DORISS has been deployed in Monterey Bay, the Gulf of California, the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal Field on Gorda Ridge, and at Hydrate Ridge. We have successfully collected spectra of gasses (natural gas, carbon dioxide, nitrogen), liquids (liquid carbon dioxide, hydrothermal vent fluid) and solids (hydrothermal minerals, gas hydrates) in the deep ocean.
The second generation instrument - DORISS II - was deployed in October 2005.
DORISS project at MBARI
Brewer, P. G., G. Malby, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, E. T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science, Deep Sea Res. I, 51, 10.1016/j.dsr.2003.11.005, 2004.
Pasteris, J. D., B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, P. G. Brewer, S. N. White, E. T. Peltzer, G.E. Malby, Raman spectroscopy in the deep ocean: successes and challenges, Appl. Spectrosc., 58 (7), 195A-208A, 2004.
White, S. N., W. J. Kirkwood, A. D. Sherman, M. O. Brown, R. Henthorn, K. Salamy, P. Walz, E. T. Peltzer, and P. G. Brewer, Development and deployment of a precision underwater positioining system for in situ laser Raman spectroscopy in the deep ocean, Deep Sea Res., 52: 2376-2389, 2005.
Hester, K. C., S. N. White, E. T. Peltzer, P. G. Brewer, and E. D. Sloan, Raman spectroscopic measurements of synthetic gas hydrates in the ocean, Mar. Chem., 98, 304-314, 2006.
White, S. N., P. G. Brewer, and E. T. Peltzer, Determination of gas bubble fractionation in the deep ocean by laser Raman spectroscopy, Mar. Chem., 99, 12-23, 2006.
White, S. N., R. M. Dunk, P. G. Brewer, E. T. Peltzer, and J. J. Freeman, In situ Raman analyses of deep-sea hydrothermal and cold seep systems (Gorda Ridge & Hydrate Ridge), Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 7, doi:10.1029/2005GC001204, 2006.
Hester, K. C., R. M. Dunk, S. N. White, P. G. Brewer, E. T. Peltzer, and E. D. Sloan, Gas hydrate measurements at Hydrate Ridge using Raman spectroscopy, Geochem. Cosmochem. Acta, 71, 2947-2959, 2007.